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One early methodology was introspection, which was used to study the elements of perception, although this ran into difficulties. They accepted that this was inadequate: “It is likely that an adequate model will comprise complex interactions between top-down and bottom-up processes, and that processing at different levels will be temporally parallel or partially overlapping” (Lockhart & Craik, 1990, p. 95). To return to the third of Koehler’s points, in most real-world situations, base-rate information is either unavailable or of limited usefulness.