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Slow cooling leads to preferential collection of the lignin derived components which is a viscous liqUid which can lead to blockage of heat exchange equipment and liquid fractionation. Very rapid cooling of the product has been suggested to be effective as occurs typically in a direct contact quench. Transfer lines from the reactor through the cyclone(s) to the liqUid collection system should be maintained at > 400'C to minimise liquid deposition and collection. At present, there are no recognised design methods and most work has been empirical and specific to the characteristics of the feedstock being processed.
Polym. , Vol 28,1983, P 3515-3525. Klein MTand Virk PS, "Primary and Secondary Lignin Pyrolysis Reaction Pathways", Ind. Eng. Chem. , 22, 1983, P 35. Petrocelli FP and Klein MT, "Simulation of Kraft Lignin Pyrolysis", in Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, Overend RP, Milne T A and Mudge LK (eds), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, New York, 1985, p 257. latridis Band Gavalas GR, "Pyrolysis of a Precip~ated Kraft Lignin", Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. , 18, Vol 2, 1979, P 127. Nunn T R, Howard J B, Longwell J P and Peters W A, "Product Compos~ion and Kinetics in the Rapid Pyrolysis of Milled Wood Lignin", Ind.
Nat. Res. Council, 4, No 142, (Jan and May) 1962. Chatterjee P K and Conrad C M, Textile Res. , 36, No 6,1966, P 487. Kanuary A M, "Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Wood Pyrolysis", Combustion and Flame, 1972, 18, 75-83. Lewellen PC, Peters WA and Howard JB, "Cellulose Pyrolysis Kinetics and Char Formation Mechanism", 16th Symposium (International) on Combustion, Combustion Institute, 1976, p 1471. Maa P S, "Influence of Particle Sizes and Environmental Conditions on High Temperature Pyrolysis of the Cellulosic Material", PhD Dissertation, West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA, 1971.