By Hanspeter Mössenböck
This ebook describes a pragmatic method of object-oriented programming and layout. After explaining the fundamental thoughts of object-orientation the ebook exhibits with quite a few practical examples how this system can be utilized to write down extensible and well-structured software program. It mentioned normal layout styles and exhibits implementation thoughts for often happening difficulties to be solved with object-oriented programming. Object-oriented programming is programming within the huge. even though it is feasible to provide an explanation for the elemental thoughts withsmall examples it will be significant to review huge and real looking functions so one can comprehend the facility and style of this new approach. as a result the publication includes the layout and whole resource code of a practical case learn - a window procedure with extensible textual content and pix editors. The programming language utilized in this ebook is Oberon-2, the newest offspringof the Pascal and Modula-2 relatives of languages constructed at ETH Z}rich. along with pleasant the primary necessities of recent software program such asstrong variety checking, modularity and object-orientedness one of many significant benefits of this language is its simplicity. somebody who is familiar with Pascal may also learn Oberon-2 courses. Compilers for Oberon-2 in addition to the resource code of the case learn during this e-book are freely to be had from ETH.
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Extra resources for Object-Oriented Programming: in Oberon-2
TYPE Ptr = POINTER TO Ree; Ree = RECORD ... END; VAR p: Ptr; PROCEDURE (VAR r: Ree) M; ... END M; ... M ... ") A: Yes. The record referenced by p is passed as a variable parameter to M. On the other hand, a message must not be sent to a record object if the formal receiver parameter is a pointer. This means that the following situation is forbidden: VAR r: Ree; PROCEDURE (p: Ptr) M1; ... END M1; ... M1 ... (*this is iIIegar) 47 48 4 Classes A record cannot be passed to a pointer. When both variables of type Ptr and variables of type Rec are used and messages are to be sent to both, the formal receiver parameter of the methods must be declared as a record.
This is done by moving the last element a[n] to a and then swapping places with the smaller of its children (propagating it downward) as long as it is larger than (both) its child(ren) (Fig. 4). /®" 3 4 /" /" 7 3 4 5 / " 9 7 3 (8)/ 7 /~ / "7 9 " 3 4 3 3/ 4 5 " 4 / "®4 /"5 7 /" /"- 9 7 Fig. 4 Element a[t] was removed. Element a[n] =8 was moved to a[t] and is now propagated downward in the tree The following code segment removes the smallest element x from heap a: 31 32 3 Data Abstraction x:= a; ('propagate a[nJ from a[1J downwards') y := a[n]; n := n - 1; i := 1; ready := FALSE; WHILE (i <= n DIV 2) & - ready DO j:= i + i; IF (j < n) & (am> aU+1]) THEN j:= j + 1 END; ('select smallerchild*) IF y > am THEN ali] := am; i := j ELSE ready := TRUE END END; a[i]:= y Clients are bothered with details Modifications in the data affect the clients Heap a and its number of elements n make up the concrete data structure for the priority queue.
It returns a value that is used in the evaluation of the expression. The value that a function procedure is to return must be specified in a return statement. A function procedure is characterized by the declaration of a result type following its formal parameter list. Procedures can invoke themselves recursively. With each invocation, a new set of local variables is allocated, so that every invocation of the procedure works with its own local variables. A number of standard procedures such as ORD, CHR, LEN and COPY are predeclared.