By John Krige;Angelina Long Callahan;Ashok Maharaj
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Extra info for NASA in the World: Fifty Years of International Collaboration in Space
By maintaining “clean” technological interfaces, and by regulating knowledge flows across them, NASA was able to protect its cutting-edge science and technology to secure American preeminence while sharing knowledge and skills that foreign partners still valued. 2 13 Benefits of NASA’s international programs in Western Europe Scientific/ Technical Benefits Attracts brainpower to work on challenging research problems Shapes foreign programs to be compatible with US effort by encouraging others to “do it our way” Limits foreign funds for space activities that are competitive or less compatible with US space interests Obtains outstanding experiments from non-US investigators Obtains coordinated or simultaneous observations from multiple investigators Opens doors for US scientists to participate in foreign programs Economic Benefits Has contributed over $2 billion in cost savings and contributions to NASA’s space effort Improves the balance of trade by creating new markets for US aerospace products Political Benefits Creates a positive image of the United States among scientific, technical, and official elites Encourages European unity by working with multinational institutions Reinforces the image of US openness in contrast to the secrecy of the Soviet space program Uses space technology as a tool of diplomacy to serve broader foreign policy objectives Source: Adapted from John Logsdon, “US-European Cooperation in Space Science: A 25-Year Perspective,” Science 223:4631 (January 6, 1984): 11–16.
The rigidity that had marked 40 years of US-Soviet rivalry and the framework for collaboration that it had defined had now collapsed. ” The political and military rationales for collaboration with Western allies—and the subordination of economic considerations to geostrategic concerns during the Cold War—would come back to haunt the United States: the technological gap was no more and erstwhile allies were now economic competitors. As the Soviet Empire crumbled “the Bush administration, in a sharp reversal of prior practice, [.
These were never delivered, presumably because of the presence of communist ministers in the postwar French government and in important scientific organizations. A ballistic missile research laboratory was established at Vernon in May 1946 to exploit the spoils of war, a test range was built at Colomb-Béchar in the Sahara Desert, and 123 German engineers and technicians who had been involved in Von Braun’s program at Peenemü nde were employed under contract to work on missiles for the French military.