Lung Biology in Health & Disease Volume 162 Drug Delivery to by Hans Bisgaard, Chris O'Callaghan, Gerald C. Smaldone

By Hans Bisgaard, Chris O'Callaghan, Gerald C. Smaldone

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1 g cm–3 density larger than 3 µm in diameter are no longer deposited due to diffusion but solely due to sedimentation, since those particles settle more than 30 µm s–1 (Fig. 2). , in small airways and in the lung periphery. C. Inertial Particle Transport (Impaction) In the branching network of airways, the inspired air is changing its velocity and direction of motion all the time while it is penetrating into the lungs. Particles carried with the air are therefore exposed to inertial forces all the time.

Effect of Fluid Dynamics When an aerosol enters the respiratory tract, its particles first experience inertial transport onto airway surfaces in the extrathoracic and upper bronchial region. 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time after particle inhalation (h) Figure 10 Temporal variation of thoracic retention. As it penetrates further into the respiratory tract the efficacy of this transport diminishes and the efficacy of gravitational transport is enhanced. The upper respiratory tract can be considered as an impactor and the lower respiratory tract as an elutriator.

54. Gelfand ML. Administration of cortisone by the aerosol method in the treatment of bronchial asthma. N Engl J Med 1951; 245:293–294. 55. Foulds WS, Greaves DP, Herxheimer H, Kingdom LG. Hydrocortisone in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Lancet 1955; 1:234–235. 56. Brockbank W, Brebner H, Pengelly CDR. Chronic asthma treatment with aerosol hydrocortisone. Lancet 1956; 2:807. 57. Fitzmaurice C, Lee DB. British Pat No 1969; 1144906. 58. Howell JBL, Altounyan REC.

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