By Oliver G. Schmidt
Actual positioning of self-organized nanostructures on a substrate floor may be considered as the Achilles' heel of nanotechnology. This notion additionally applies to self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots. This publication describes the entire variety of attainable innovations to laterally align self-assembled quantum dots on a substrate floor, ranging from natural self-ordering mechanisms and culminating with compelled alignment by way of lithographic positioning. The textual content addresses either brief- and long-range ordering phenomena and paves the best way for the long run excessive integration of unmarried quantum dot units on a unmarried chip. Contributions through the best-known specialists during this box make sure that all suitable quantum-dot heterostructures are elucidated from different views.
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Additional info for Lateral Alignment of Epitaxial Quantum Dots
Other aspects of the eﬀect of reversible change of temperature and vapor pressure of V-group element on an array of InAs/GaAs islands are discussed in detail in . To conclude, these results present strong evidence in favor of a close-to-equilibrium nature of the formation of 3D coherently strained islands of InAs on GaAs(001) substrates. 3 Dense Arrays of 3D Islands: Lateral Arrangement The larger is the island density, the more important becomes the elastic interaction between the islands. The elastic interaction mediated by the substrate may result in speciﬁc lateral arrangements of the islands.
64] proposed and performed seeding of InGaAs islands on top of a sheet of InAlAs islands used as stressors via the concept of vertically coupled QDs . The idea is illustrated in Fig. 14a, b. In the ﬁrst sheet, InAlAs is deposited on a GaAlAs substrate resulting in the formation of InAlAs small islands. These islands serve as stressors providing the growth of columns of vertically correlated islands (Fig. 14a), where islands in the subsequent sheet have a larger volume than those of the ﬁrst sheet.
Parts of this work were supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Sfb 296) and by the SANDiE Network of Excellence of the European Commission, contract number NMP4-CT-2004-500101. References 1. D. Bimberg, M. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures, Wiley, Chichester (1998) 2. M. Zinke-Allmang, Thin Solid Films 346, 1 (1999) 3. L. -L. K. S. Williams, in Future Trends in Microelectronics. The Road Ahead, ed. by S. Luryi, J. Xu, A. Zaslavsky, Wiley, New York (1999), p. 237 4. A. Shchukin, D.