By Curney R.W. (ed.)
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Additional resources for Ionic Processes in Solution
Increased enzyme enantioselectivity (Liu et al. 2005; Durand et al. 2007) and stability (Machado and Saraiva 2005; Ulbert et al. 2005) have also been reported in ionic liquid medium when compared to aqueous or organic media. However, biocatalysis in ionic liquids presents several challenges: difﬁculty in purifying them and controlling water activity and pH, high viscosity and problematic product recovery. Despite this, its potential is signiﬁcant especially within the framework of green chemistry (Park and Kazlauskas 2003).
1998) Qin and Cabral (2002) Noor et al. (2002) and Paramonov et al. (2005) Hoffmeister et al. (1998) Sarkissian et al. (1999) and Ikeda et al. (2005) Yang et al. (1986) and Comfort et al. (1989) Ioannou et al. (2001) and Pastores and Thadhani (2001) van den Hout et al. (2000) Krackhardt et al. (2000) Soltys et al. (1992) and Chen and Wang (1998) Duval et al. (2002) Reference 30 A. Illanes 1 Introduction 31 by Swi (2007). Targeting of the enzyme to the corresponding site of action within the body is a crucial aspect of in-vivo applications and a variety of different strategies are now available (L¨ubbe et al.
Enzyme immobilization widened the scope of application allowing less stable, intracellular and non-hydrolytic enzymes to be developed as process biocatalysts (Poulsen 1984; D’Souza 1999), as illustrated by the paradigmatic case of glucose isomerase for the production of HFS (Carasik and Carroll 1983) and the production of acrylamide from acrylonitrile by nitrile hydratase (Yamada and Kobayashi 1996). The trend is now to develop enzymatic processes of organic synthesis where the potential added value is much higher.