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Extra resources for Introduction to QFT (CMU lecture notes draft)
2) ⎜ .. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ cn Since the main motivation in this book for introducing linear algebra is for the quantum private communication, notations should be following the quantum standard. Making using of quantum notations, the vector v is denoted |v called ket, where the symbol |· is a Dirac notation and v is a label for a vector. A concomitant expression for the vector |v is v| called bra, which denotes the dual vector of the ket. In addition, (|v )∗ = (c∗1 , c∗2 , . . , c∗n )T and (|v )† = ((c∗1 , c∗2 , .
While to defend the active attacks an authentication system for authenticating the identity of communicators or authenticity of messages is necessary. All these cryptographic procedures are associated with a key-system which is symmetrical or 12 1 Introduction unsymmetrical. No exceptions for the quantum private communication. To protect legitimate messages, a cryptosystem is needed. As described previously, two approaches are involved. One is the combination of classic encryption algorithms controlled by a key which is obtained using QKD protocols.
Similarly, the ciphertext consists of qubits or/and classic bits, and ciphertext particles mean the particles carried the ciphertext, and the ciphertext state means the quantum state of ciphertext particles. It is noted that plaintext particles and ciphertext particles may be the same, but the plaintext state and ciphertext state must be diﬀerent. The ciphertext space is a set consists of all possible cipher. , the cipher and cryptosystem. The term cipher (sometimes cypher) is often used to refer to a pair of algorithms, one for encryption and one for decryption.