# Introduction to Graph Theory by Richard J. Trudeau

By Richard J. Trudeau

A stimulating day trip into natural arithmetic geared toward "the mathematically traumatized," yet nice enjoyable for mathematical hobbyists and severe mathematicians to boot. Requiring in simple terms highschool algebra as mathematical heritage, the booklet leads the reader from basic graphs via planar graphs, Euler's formulation, Platonic graphs, coloring, the genus of a graph, Euler walks, Hamilton walks, and a dialogue of The Seven Bridges of Konigsberg. workouts are incorporated on the finish of every bankruptcy.

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Rationality For a belief state to qualify as knowledge, certain rationality constraints must be satisﬁed. Suppose for instance that having acquired a true belief b in a reliable way you become aware of having another belief c with as much justiﬁcation as b but which is clearly inconsistent with b. 8 There are other rationality constraints. But there is no good reason to think that it is impossible or even difﬁcult to meet rationality constraints. The contrary thought arises when one assumes rationality constraints that are much too strict.

See Peacocke (1992). This view of concepts (thought constituents) is minimalist. It is consistent with the approach taken in this paper that minimalism misses out something essential to the nature of concepts. For example, one might hold that part of what constitutes possessing a perceptual concept for squares is that one has a symbol for the perceptual category of squares. In this spirit Giuseppe Longo (personal communication) has suggested that what I am talking about might better be called ‘‘proto-concepts’’.

When a visual experience thus triggers the relevant belief-forming disposition, the experience does not have the role of evidence for the resulting belief. Yet the belief acquired this way can be knowledge: the mode of acquisition is reliable, there need be no violation of epistemic rationality, and the believer has an implicit justiﬁcation for the belief. Moreover, the only serious objections that I know about can be met. One ﬁnal point. This manner of acquiring the belief is non-empirical, because the role of experience is not to provide evidence.