Introduction aux études de philologie romane by Erich Auerbach

By Erich Auerbach

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Extra info for Introduction aux études de philologie romane

Sample text

T a n t que l’em pire rom ain fu t in tact, la com m unication p erm an ente en tre les différentes provinces — le com m erce d an s la M éditerranée éta it trè s florissant •— em p êch ait une sép ara tio n lin­ guistique com plète; on se co m prenait m utuellem ent. M ais ap rè s la chute définitive de l’em pire, depuis le 5e siècle, les com m unications d evenant difficiles e t rares, les pay s s’isolaient, et, d e p lus e n plus, chaque région suivait so n développem ent p articulier; com m e en m êm e tem p s la culture littéraire, qui au rait pu continuer de serv ir de lien e n tre les différentes parties du m onde rom anisé, to m b a it dans une extrêm e décadence, il ne restait plus rien pour co n treb alan cer les p ro g rès de l’isolem ent lin­ guistique, auquel coopérait encore la d iversité des év énem ents et développem ents h istoriq u es dan s les différentes provinces.

Pour désigner ce latin parlé, les érudits se serv en t d u term e «le latin vulgaire». Ce ne so n t pas, il est vrai, les savants m odernes qui o n t inventé l’expression; dans la basse antiquité déjà, e t dans les prem iers siècles du m oyen âge, on désignait le langage du peuple p a r opposition au langage litté ra ire comme langue «rustique» ou «vulgaire» (lingua latin a rustica, vulgatis); et ainsi on a appelé longtem ps le,s langues rom anes elles-mêmes p ar ce term e; pour un Italien, un Espagnol, un Français du m oyen âge sa propre langue m aternelle fut longtem ps «la langue vulgaire»; D ante a donné à un de ses écrits, où il parle de la m anière de com poser des oeuvres littéraires en langue m aternelle, le titre «De vulgari eloquentia»; ju sq u ’au seizième siècle, c’est-à-dire ju sq u ’à ia Renaissance, cette m anière de désigner les langues rom anes était courante, et de fait, elles ne sont que la forme actuelie du développem ent du la tin vulgaire.

D epuis la fin du 2e siècle, cette tâche devient de plus en plus difficile; l’em pire, depuis ce tem ps, est n ettem en t su r la défensive; po u r des raisons sur lesquelles on a beau­ coup discuté, ses ressources s’épuisent, tan d is que la pression d u dehors s ’accroît, s u rto u t du côté des G erm ains au n o rd et d es P a rth e s à l’est. T outefois, la lu tte fut longue et dure; après les catastro p h es d u 3e siècle, D ioclétien e t C o n stan tin (prem ier em pereur chrétien) réu ssiren t pour une dernière fois à réorganiser l’adm in istratio n et à consolider les fron­ tières; ce ne fu t q u ’au 5e siècle que la p artie occidentale de l’em pire, avec l’ancienne capitale, s’écroula définitivem ent (476); l’em pire oriental, d o n t la capitale fut C onstantinople, s’est m aintenu encore p en d an t un m illénaire, ju sq u ’à la conquête tu rq u e au 15e siècle.

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