By Stephen Kemble
The current impetus to force down the general fee of house missions is resulting in ever-increasing calls for for extra effective layout recommendations over quite a lot of interplanetary missions, and the tools now being utilised to do that are defined during this well timed and authoritative paintings.
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Additional info for Interplanetary Mission Analysis and Design (Springer Praxis Books / Astronautical Engineering)
This term arises from the geometry of the location of planet 1 which is in conjunction with planet 2's location at arrival, although there is no true conjunction at either departure or arrival. Other transfer types beyond this conjunction category will also be considered. 2 Lambert's problem One of the fundamental problems of interplanetary missions is to devise a trajectory for a spacecraft that leaves one planet at a certain epoch and then arrives at a second planet at a later epoch. In principle, these departure and arrival epochs may be chosen at will, but not without a signi®cant implication for the DV required to implement such a transfer.
388 393 396 401 402 403 405 406 408 409 423 427 450 450 451 451 454 456 456 Nomenclature COMMONLY USED TERMS The following lists a series of acronyms, mathematical symbols, and phrases frequently used in this text. This is not a comprehensive list and details of further terms used are given in the appropriate sections. COMMON ACRONYMS ÁV Delta-V EGA Earth Gravity Assist GA Gravity Assist Isp Speci®c Impulse JGA Jupiter Gravity Assist LGA Lunar Gravity assist MGA Mercury Gravity Assist NEP Nuclear Electric Propulsion SEP Solar Electric Propulsion SGA Saturn Gravity Assist VGA Venus Gravity Assist VI Excess hyperbolic speed GRAVITY ASSIST SEQUENCE LABELLING E J Earth Jupiter xxxii Nomenclature L M S V Moon (Earth's) Mercury Saturn Venus Example: V±E±E Venus, Earth, Earth gravity assist sequence COMMON SUBSCRIPTS TO MATHEMATICAL TERMS C I p Denotes term relative to central body Denotes a vector expressed in an inertially oriented frame Denotes term relative to major body COMMON MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS a AY X b e C d ÁV E F À h i J m M p Semi-major axis of ellipse Velocity vector de¯ection angle (in gravity assist description) Thrust vector azimuth angle in low-thrust vector modelling Transformation matrix from Y to X frame Semi-minor axis of ellipse Angle describing the location of the intersection of the approaching asymptotic excess hyperbolic velocity vector with the B plane (in gravity assist description) Thrust vector elevation angle in low-thrust vector modelling Eccentricity Jacobi constant (in three-body problem) Constraint (in optimisation problems) Distance Delta-V Eccentric anomaly (in ephemeris elements) Energy (usually per unit mass) Hyperbolic anomaly Flight path angle Angular momentum (usually per unit mass) Inclination Objective function Lagrange multiplier (in non-linear programming methods) Longitude (in orbit kinematics) Mass Mean anomaly Gravitational parameter (in gravitational acceleration terms) Mass ratio (in three-body problem) Orbit semi-latus rectum Nomenclature xxxiii P r rplanet t T Adjoint vector (in indirect optimisation) Spacecraft position (may be used as vector or magnitude) Major body position (may be used as vector or magnitude) Elapsed time Thrust (often per unit mass) Orbit period True anomaly (in ephemeris elements) Angle between approaching relative velocity vector and major body velocity vector in gravity assist u Control vector U Potential V Spacecraft velocity (may be used as vector or magnitude) Vplanet Major body velocity (may be used as vector or magnitude) !
388 393 396 401 402 403 405 406 408 409 423 427 450 450 451 451 454 456 456 Nomenclature COMMONLY USED TERMS The following lists a series of acronyms, mathematical symbols, and phrases frequently used in this text. This is not a comprehensive list and details of further terms used are given in the appropriate sections.