Hydrology. An Advanced Introduction to Hydrological by Arved J. Raudkivi (Auth.)

By Arved J. Raudkivi (Auth.)

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17 and show the effect of the land masses of the Northern Hemisphere. 18 shows the pattern of the mean summer and winter wind directions. No­ tice how the large anticyclonic centres of diverging flow coincide with the centres of high pressure in Fig. 16, and the less dominant converging cyclone pattern with the low pressure centres, for example, the January low over Australia and corres­ Prominent are also the lines of ponding convergent pattern of wind directions. convergence in the equatorial trough of low pressures, Fig.

Hum. 40 Mix. 8 Since water vapour is less dense than air, vapour increases the specific volume and the virtual temperature is always higher than the observed one. 0234 T. (Meteorologists use more than a dozen dif­ ferent temperatures. For the definition of these the reader could refer to Berry et al. 6). 1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics When an air mass ascends it is subject to a gradually decreasing pressure and it ex­ pands. As air expands it cools. 9 for moist air. 10 where H = e^ + pv is the enthalpy, Q the heat added and W is work done by shear stres­ ses at boundaries or mechanical work added or extracted.

Since the specific volume of ice is only slightly larger than that of water, the right-hand side of the Clapeyron equation is large in magnitude. If these two volumes were equal the melting line would be vertical, but νχ is slight­ ly larger than v 2 and the slope is slightly negative. Along the melting curve wa­ ter and ice are in equilibrium. Liquid water can exist between 0 and -39 °C, so-called supercooled water. The das­ hed line shows the evaporation line from supercooled water. The saturation vapour pressure over supercooled water is higher than that over ice at the same temperature Thus, if one introduces a crystal of ice into a cloud of subecause L s u b l > L e v .

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