Hartnb

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Uploader be aware: it is a reference advisor - you won't study Portuguese from this book.

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The second part of the chapter presents an in-depth discussion of testing criteria and concludes with a list of eight criteria, which, if adopted, would ensure that tests of English were valid, reliable and fair. ’, David Li first points out several illogicalities of the grammatical system of English, providing 11 ANDY KIRKPATRICK several illustrations of this. He terms these ‘sources of learner-unfriendliness’. He also shows that generalizations and analogies drawn from these illogicalities are a frequent source of learner error, but that, with the increasing development of new varieties of English, many of these so-called errors are becoming increasingly common, and that realizations of these ‘errors’ can often be found on respectable internet sites.

The smaller unlabelled circles signify earlier forms of English in time, or they signify sociolinguistic profiles or ideologies of English inspired by those earlier forms, but written on today’s map (see Milroy 2002: 9–12 on language history as a legitimizing ideology). As Kachru states: The inner circle is inner with reference to the origin and spread of the language, and the outer is outer with reference to geographical expansion of the language – the historical stages in the initiatives to locate the English language beyond the traditional English-speaking Britain; the motivations, strategies, and agencies involved in the spread of English; the methodologies involved in the acquisition of the language; and the depth in terms of social penetration of the English language to expand its functional range in various domains, including those of administration, education, political discourses, literary creativity, and media.

London is likely to have had an influence on the emergence of Standard English not primarily as a site of government and power but rather as an engine of communication and exchange … Key processes to consider would include the establishment of fellowship, trust and norms which fostered understanding and an ability quickly to conclude deals in acknowledged and repeatable ways. (Keene 2000: 111) The wealth generated in these exchanges led to the further growth of the middle class. On the one hand, immigration from other parts of Britain enabled dialect items to enter the feature pool of standardizing English.

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