Hard processes 1. Phenomenology, Quark-Parton Model by B. L. Ioffe

By B. L. Ioffe

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This fact is reflected by its potentially negative values, while even a Gaussian wave packet, which leads to a non-negative Wigner function, is nonetheless one (pure) quantum state. 13) is conveniently measured by the latter’s formal entropy, such as the linear entropy Slin = trace(ρ − ρ2 ). ). This is possible as far as the entanglement is not obscured by a mixed state of the total system. Therefore, effective measures have been proposed to characterize the operationally available entanglement in mixtures (Peres 1996, Vedral et al.

16) are determined (up to degeneracy of the pk ’s) by the total state |Ψ itself. A time dependence of |Ψ must therefore in general affect both the Schmidt states and their (formal) probabilities pk – hence also the subsystem entropy, such ubler and Zeh (1973), Pearle (1979), and Albrecht as pk (1 − pk ) – see K¨ (1993). The induced subsystem dynamics is thus not “autonomous”. Similar to the motion of a shadow that merely reflects the regular motion of a physical object, the reduced information content of the subsystem density matrix by itself is insufficient to determine its own change.

1997). However, these measures do not represent the true and complete entanglement, since a mixed state, which reduces this measure, is either based on entanglement itself (of the bipartite system as a whole with its environment), or the consequence of averaging over an ensemble of unknown (but nonetheless entangled) states. The eigenbasis of the reduced density matrix can be used, by orthogonalizing the correlated “relative states” of the environment, in order to write the total state as a single sum, √ φˆenvironment .

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