Green Solvents I: Properties and Applications in Chemistry by Shadpour Mallakpour, Zahra Rafiee (auth.), Ali Mohammad

By Shadpour Mallakpour, Zahra Rafiee (auth.), Ali Mohammad (eds.)

The traditional solvents utilized in chemical, pharmaceutical, biomedical and separation techniques signify an outstanding problem to eco-friendly chemistry as a result of their toxicity and flammability. because the starting of “the 12 rules of eco-friendly Chemistry” in 1998, a common attempt has been made to interchange traditional solvents with environmentally benign substitutes. Water has been the preferred selection to this point, by means of ionic beverages, surfactant, supercritical fluids, fluorous solvents, liquid polymers, bio-solvents and switchable solvent platforms.

Green Solvents quantity I and II provides a all through evaluation of the different sorts of solvents and discusses their broad purposes in fields comparable to extraction, natural synthesis, biocatalytic procedures, construction of excellent chemical compounds, removing of hydrogen sulphide, biochemical differences, composite fabric, power garage units and polymers. those volumes are written through prime overseas specialists and canopy all attainable features of eco-friendly solvents’ houses and functions to be had in today’s literature.

Green Solvents quantity I and II is a useful consultant to scientists, R&D commercial experts, researchers, upper-level undergraduates and graduate scholars, Ph.D. students, collage and collage professors operating within the box of chemistry and biochemistry.

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Proteins and ceramics), and powder coating. Water has good environmental and other advantages, although need more extreme conditions of Tc 647 K (374°C) and Pc 221 bar. SCF water is being used, at a research level, as a medium for the oxidative destruction of toxic waste. There is a particular attention in both supercritical and nearcritical water owing to the behavior of its polarity. , solubility, diffusivity, viscosity, and heat capacity) are different from those of ordinary liquids and gases and are tunable simply by changing the pressure and temperature.

The SC-CO2 has been applied as a solvent to obtain ceramides from wool fibers [169]. A SCF-assisted technique has been employed for the formation of 3D scaffolds, which consists of three subprocesses: the formation of a polymeric gel loaded with a solid porogen, the drying of the gel using SC-CO2, and the washing with water to eliminate the porogen [170]. Polyethylene/poly(vinyl acetate) tubing has been prepared by the polymerization of vinyl acetate using the SC-CO2 method [171]. The organic conducting aerogel has been prepared from SC-CO2 drying of a poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) hydrogel [172].

SCFs may be defined as the state of a compound, mixture, or element above its critical pressure (Pc) and critical temperature (Tc), but below the pressure required to condense it into a solid. In this region, the SCF exists in an intermediate phase between liquid and 24 S. Mallakpour and Z. Rafiee gas phases. The macroscopic appearance of the SCF is a homogeneous and opalescent system without phase separation (single phase) because of identical values of the densities of the gas and liquid. Nevertheless, a SCF does not show a specific aggregation state.

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