By Stanislav N. Gorb
This booklet is dedicated to the swiftly transforming into region of technological know-how facing constitution and homes of organic surfaces of their relation to specific function(s). This quantity, written via a workforce of experts from diversified disciplines, covers a number of floor features reminiscent of security, protection, water shipping, anti-wetting, self cleansing, gentle mirrored image and scattering, and acoustics. simply because organic surfaces have an almost never-ending strength of technological rules for the advance of latest fabrics and structures, inspirations from biology may be attention-grabbing for a large diversity of issues in floor engineering.
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Additional resources for Functional Surfaces in Biology: Adhesion Related Phenomena Volume 2
These cells are neurosecretory cells which are believed to control the mechanical properties of the connective tissue by the secretion of compounds modulating interactions between collagen fibrils (Wilkie, 2005). , deionised water [DW]). These treatments are known to influence the physiological state of MCTs, the former mimicking its soft state and the latter inducing its stiff state (Trotter and Koob, 1995; Szulgit and Shadwick, 2000). The outer connective tissue sheath of the stem wall in asteroid and echinoid tube feet contain numerous juxtaligamental cell processes with electron-dense granules, as in other known echinoderm MCTs (Fig.
They are narrow and characterized by a single short apical cilium that traverses the cuticle and protrudes into the outer medium (Fig. 7A, B). Basally, these cells terminate within the nerve plexus. Therefore, they are presumed to transduce environmental stimuli into electrical signals within the nerve plexus, and are generally assumed to be chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors or photoreceptors. Their cytoplasm encloses longitudinally arranged microtubules, elongated mitochondria, and small apical vesicles (Holland, 1984; Cobb and Moore, 1986; Cobb, 1987; Flammang, 1996).
The cytoplasm of de-adhesive cells also contains numerous RER cisternae, a small Golgi apparatus and longitudinally arranged microtubules. Their basal end is tapered and penetrates the nerve plexus while their apex usually bears a short subcuticular cilium (Flammang, 1996). A cuticle, consisting of fibrous and sometimes granular material, covers the epidermal cells of echinoderm tube foot adhesive areas (Fig. , 2000). Depending on the species, there are from three to five cuticular sublayers. , 2000).