By Sergio Martellucci, Massimo Santarsiero

Optical beams are electromagnetic waves that stay primarily focused round an average axis upon unfastened propagation or which are guided by way of appropriate constructions. The learn of those beams has existed in the past and because then this box has been a spotlight of energetic research. besides the fact that, in recent times, the curiosity on optical beams has extra elevated, as a result of the availability of many varieties of laser assets, characterised by means of very diverse homes, so far as their polarization, coherence, spectral content material, and spatial distribution are concerned.This publication includes lectures awarded within the thirty fifth overseas tuition of Quantum Electronics on the Ettore Majorana Centre in Erice, Sicily. It provides the most recent insurance at the improvement and improve in ""Free and Guided Optical Beams"". the aim of those lectures was once to offer an up-to-date evaluate, as whole as attainable, on themes in regards to the propagation of sunshine beams in unfastened house, in fabrics, and in guiding constructions, and to supply the instruments had to its learn, either from the theoretical and the applying element of view.The lectures provided listed here are written in prolonged review-like layout. either introductory primary issues and up to date study effects are reviewed, making this an indispensible ebook for amateur in addition to specialists during this box"

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**Extra info for Free and Guided Optical Beams: Proceedings of the International School of Quantum Electronicserice Slcily, Italy 20 - 27 November 2002**

**Example text**

21. T. Carozzi, R. Karlsson, and J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. £61, 2024 (2000). 22. T. Setala, A. Shevchenko, M. Kaivola, and A. T. Friberg, Phys. Rev. E 66, 016615 (2002). 23. J. C. Samson, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 34, 403 (1973). 24. R. Barakat, Opt. Acta 30, 1171 (1983). 25. T. Setala, M. Kaivola, and A. T. Friberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 1069 (2003). 26. T. Setala, M. Kaivola, and A. T. Friberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123902 (2002). 25 27. T, Setala, Spatial Correlations and Partial Polarization in Electromagnetic Optical Fields: Effects of Evanescent Waves, PhD thesis (Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, 2003).

More importantly, physical insight into the 3D degree of polarization is gained by expressing P3 explicitly in terms of the degrees of correlation Hjk\ (j, k = x,y, z) among the orthogonal electric-field components as22 pii > ~ ~ xyxxyy -xzxxzz 4>xx4>yy +

Depending on the material, surface-relief structures can also be realized without illuminating a light sensitive material. Wellknown examples are diamond turning and laser ablation. Various micro-optical elements are shown in Figs. 4-9. Figure 4. Spherical lenses (diameter 3 |um). Figure 5. Interferometrically recorded crossed grating (period A = 1 jam). Figure 6. Grating on top of a (A = 1 urn). Figure 7. Arbitrary surface produced by gray-tone lithography. 15 microlens 34 Figure 8. Birefringent micro-optics Figure 9.