By Kevin Passmore
What's fascism? Is it innovative? Or is it reactionary? This e-book argues that it really is either: fascism unleashes violence opposed to the left and ethnic minorities, but in addition condemns the bourgeoisie for its "softness". Kevin Passmore opens his e-book with a sequence of "scenes from fascist life"--a mystery assembly of the Romanian Iron protect; Mussolini assembly the king of Italy; a rally of Hungarian medical professionals calling for regulations at the variety of Jews coming into the occupation. He then appears on the paradoxes of fascism via its origins within the political and social trouble of the past due 19th century, the heritage of fascist routine and regimes in Italy and Germany, and the fortunes of "failed" fascist activities in Romania, Hungary and Spain. He exhibits how fascism employs propaganda and pop culture to propagate itself and the way it exported its principles open air Europe, via Nazi and Spanish post-war get away routes to Latin the USA. The e-book concludes with a dialogue of the new revival of the extraordinary correct in Austria, Italy, France, and Russia.
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Additional resources for Fascism: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
Controversy begins when we attempt to elucidate the definition. What, for example, does 24 ‘anticapitalism’ mean, given that fascists have not generally undermined big business? I prefer to advance a definition in the form of the continuous prose below, for it brings out the meaning of and linkages between the components, and the contradictory nature of fascism. The full significance of certain terms will become clearer in subsequent chapters. Whilst fascism must be seen as an integrated set of ideas and practices, all of which are essential, intelligibility demands that we start somewhere, so I shall begin by accepting the ‘new consensus’ that fascism is a form of ultranationalist ideology and practice.
Germany, too, had been unified in 1866 to 1871 ‘from above’, thanks to Prussian armies. The nation was founded upon elitist conservative nationalism marked by anti-Catholicism, antisocialism, antifeminism, and antiliberalism. Ultranationalism flourished in this climate. Julius Langbehn’s anonymously published Rembrandt as Educator (1890) was a perfect example of 44 In the 1890s this völkisch programme was taken seriously by many conservatives, who shared the ultranationalists’ enemies and harnessed nationalist demagogy to the defence of material interest.
The final point is the most important, for fascists aim to restructure society in accordance with an ideological blueprint. Totalitarian theorists argue that in traditional societies a person’s place in the world is dictated by divine plan. Modernization, however, causes the breakdown of religious certainties, and some people find this alarming (they suffer from what is termed cultural despair, angst, or anomie), so they create substitute ‘religions’ such as communism or fascism. Hannah Arendt argued that the essence of totalitarianism lay in the use of terror to make real an abstract ideological understanding of the world, and to destroy all existing human solidarities in the name of this programme.