By Allan Griffin

This quantity provides an updated, systematic account of the microscopic conception of Bose-condensed fluids constructed because the overdue Fifties. The middle of the current publication is the improvement of the field-theoretic research had to care for a Bose-condensed fluid. notwithstanding, the writer additionally brings out the basic physics at the back of the formal Green's functionality innovations and offers believable situations to appreciate contemporary excessive answer neutron and Raman scattering facts. the 1st 3 chapters provide an invaluable evaluate and introductory fabric whereas the concluding bankruptcy provides an evaluation and recommendations for additional examine.

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**Extra resources for Excitations in a Bose-condensed Liquid**

**Example text**

This language is familiar in describing interacting Fermi systems (Pines and Nozieres, 1966). It is equally useful in discussing density fluctuations in Bose fluids and we shall often use it in this book. 3) may be viewed as related to the propagator of particle-hole (p-h) pairs created at t = 0 and destroyed at time t. The elementary excitations are described by single-particle Green's functions. 3) which is measured by inelastic neutron scattering. 2) A(Q,t) = (aQ(t)a+(0)) . 7), this correlation function describes how a single atom of momentum hQ propagates over the time interval t.

9. The atomic momentum distribution in the normal and superfluid phases of liquid 4 He. 3 [Source: Sears, Svensson, Martel and Woods, 1982]. 39) where rc(p) is normalized to unity. This result is the impulse or independent-particle approximation (IA). In this limit, 5(Q,co) is seen to depend only on the equilibrium atomic momentum distribution. 38) and keeping only terms of order t2. This gives = *>-r2/T' . 40) In the last line, we have introduced an explicit definition of the scattering time TS as the relaxation time of SIA(Q, t).

There has been increasing interest in how the quasiparticle line shape changes in S(Q,co) as a function of the temperature. 4 A" 1 (the phonon region), recent high-resolution studies (Stirling and Glyde, 1990) have shown that while the width of the phonon peak steadily increases, there is no qualitative change as we go from below to above Tx. In particular, there is little change in the peak position (see Fig. 4). This was first noted in the pioneering study by Woods (1965b). 90K . 94K . 2 -. 6 v (THz) _ - - .