Essays on Life Itself by Robert Rosen

By Robert Rosen

Compiling twenty articles at the nature of lifestyles and at the goal of the average sciences, this amazing e-book enhances Robert Rosen's groundbreaking Life Itself―a paintings that stimulated a variety of philosophers, biologists, linguists, and social scientists. In Essays on existence Itself, Rosen takes to activity the crucial target of the average sciences, calling into query the try and create objectivity in a subjective international and forcing us to think again the place technology can lead us within the future years.

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What Is This “New Physics”? The new physics involves going from special to general, rather than the other way around. At the very least, it means going from closed systems to open ones, discarding specializing hypotheses such as closure conditions and conservation laws. There is still no real physics of such open systems, largely because the formalisms inherited from the old physics are still much too special to accommodate it. Most significant, I feel, will be the shifting of attention from exclusively inertial (or structural) concepts to gravitational aspects.

The arrows in such graphs, which I suggest constitute the real “aperiodic solid,” are operators; they express “gravitational” effects on the underlying system. In terms of inertia, it is much more appropriate to speak of active sites than of molecules. The two are not the same. Indeed, much simpler questions, such as, When is a molecule an enzyme? are hard to approach in purely inertial terms. These are all structure-function questions, and they are hard because a function requires an external context; a structure does not.

These are characterized by corresponding sources and sinks generally residing outside the system itself, in its environment. Inherent in this view is the notion of the system exerting forces on its environment, acting as a pump and driving the flow from sources to sinks. However, an open system in this thermodynamic sense can itself be forced: the environment can impress forces on the system. This is what we have called a gravitational effect, and it is in general a quite different kind of openness to environmental influence than the thermodynamic openness we have just been considering.

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