By Hartmut Scharfe
A complete survey of all facets of schooling in India, either within the oral and written traditions. Chronologically it covers every little thing from the Vedic interval as much as the Hindu kingdoms earlier than the institution of Muslim rule. If proper, the reader will usually locate sidesteps to fashionable continuities. The function of the oral culture and the options of memorization are mentioned, besides schooling in small deepest tutorials and the improvement of enormous monasteries and temple faculties drawing close collage personality. expert education, the function of the trainer and of overseas languages are handled, and the influence of the atypical positive factors of Indian schooling on Indian society.
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Additional info for Education in Ancient India (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch Der Orientalistik) (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch Der Orientalistik)
Aristotle and the Western tradition in general start out with observation and a study of practice, culminating in theory, whereas in India the balance is heavily tilted toward theory. 14 krtsno hi loko buddhimatam acaryah satrus cabuddhimatam. Susruta-samhita ed. , Bombay 1938, repr. Varanasi 1998. 44 Jyotirmlmamsa of Nilakantha Somayaji ed. 2 devatd-prasddo mati-vaimalya-hetur eva. na ca punah Brahma Adityo vd svayam evagatya upadiset. 6 bhede sati yantraih parlksya grahdndm bhaganadisamkhydm jndtvd abhinava-siddhdntah praneya ity arthdt, tat ta ihaloke 'hasaniydh paraloke 'dandantyds ca iti.
33 There is still a chance for human progress, by divine grace, and by further releases of discovered truth. , new shrines and new conceptual universes replace inefficient ones. "Yet these new universes and the other changes that show a certain originality come into being in an essentially formulaic and thematic noetic economy. " This tendency is most clearly evident in the schools of Vedanta which proclaim very different philosophies but equally claim to represent the thought of the upanisads, the Bhagavadgita and the Vedanta-sutra.
Stanza 247. 18 Kumarila, Slokavarttika, on MS I 1,5, p. 150, stanza 7: na caryanam viseso 'sti yavac chdstram anasritam. 19 Prastavika, stanza 25: dharmena hmahpasubhih samanah. 272f. 23 Man is not seen as the master of nature but as a part of it, linked with the animal world by the belief in transmigration; animals, too have a soul (or what passes in Buddhism for its equivalent). 24 It is not surprising then, that India was the home of the animal fable. Subsequent developments in society and religion worked against a more universalistic approach: when liberation (moksd) could be attained only in India, when the distinction between brahmins, ksattriyas, vaisyas, and sudras was attributed by Kumarila25 to belonging to different species —each marked by a specific universal (jati, sdmdnya), just as lions, elephants, etc, are different from each other and from man—, and when the body was presented as but a temporary vehicle of the self of a man, it did not make much sense to search for characteristics of common humanity or the unity of body and soul.