Dying on the Vine: How Phylloxera Transformed Wine by George Gale

By George Gale

Dying at the Vine chronicles one hundred fifty years of medical war opposed to the grapevine’s worst enemy: phylloxera. In a booklet that's hugely proper for the wine this day, George Gale describes the organic and financial catastrophe that opened up while a tiny, root-sucking insect invaded the south of France within the 1860s, unfold all through Europe, and journeyed throughout oceans to Africa, South the United States, Australia, and California—laying waste to vineyards anywhere it landed. He tells how scientists, viticulturalists, researchers, and others got here jointly to save lots of the world’s vineyards and, with years of remark and learn, constructed a technique of resistance. between different subject matters, the publication discusses phylloxera as an enormous case research of ways one invasive species can colonize new habitats and examines California’s previous and current issues of it.

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In practice, we are often faced with random experiments whose outcomes are not numbers but are expressed in inexact linguistic terms, in particular, predictions of events in the stock market. Development of the information society resulted in access to a wide range of business and economic information. In many fields of science, there are discussions about taking into account the opinion of many experts at the same time (see [11, 21]). At the moment, the discussion has not moved on in portfolio optimizing literature.

They focused on fuzzy compromise programming to find the solution of fuzzy return maximization and fuzzy beta minimization. In this paper, we introduce extensions of the BL model with linguistic expressed views of future return. As a tool for handling linguistic label information, a fuzzy random variable (further, FRV) is used. FRV concept1 have been developed in: [14, 15, 22] and in a unified approach in [13]. The overview of different variants can be found in [6, 9]. Operationally, an FRV is a random variable taking fuzzy values.

The first two questions (Q1 and Q2 ) ensured that the participants had understood the instructions. The three following questions (Q3 , Q4 and Q5 ) were randomized10 and corresponded respectively to evaluations of (with S referring to the shape of the chip and C to the color): 1. the probability of a conditional P(if S then C), 2. the conditional probability P(C|S) and 3. the probability of a conjunction P(S ∧ C). 2 Results and Discussion n(S∧C) 90 % of participants answered respectively n(S∧C)+n(S∧¬C) for P(if S then C) and for n(S∧C) P(C|S).

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