By Reinhard Tidecks

Ranging from the early experiments, this special presentation, containing greater than 500 references, presents a entire evaluation on **current-induced nonequilibrium ****phenomena in quasi-one-dimensional superconductors**, top the reader from the basics to the newest learn effects. Experiments on monocrystalline filaments (whiskers) - together with these bought via the writer - are in comparison with effects on lengthy skinny movie microbridges and comparable species and interpreted in the theoretical framework. directions on experimental suggestions are given and but unresolved difficulties are mentioned. The e-book is definitely acceptable as an advent for the amateur and as a instruction manual for the energetic researcher.

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**Extra resources for Current-Induced Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductors**

**Sample text**

37 It is remarked that z~L governs the temporal behaviour of small changes of the magnitude of the order parameter (more precisely of I~1a) in the limit where its equilibrium value is zero. This limit is, for instance, realized in experiments dealing with the decay of thermal f l u c t u a t i o n s above the critical temperature. Thus, ~ is a gap relaxation time in the gapless limit (see c h a p t e r s 7 - 5 and 8 - 3 of ref. 2, refs. 8t, 87, and 88, and chap. 9 of the present work). The last c o n t r i b u t i o n in F depends on the kind of spatial dependence of the gap.

We evaluated 1/z E from eq. (88) for several materials as a function of 2. A p l o t of (ZE/ZECO)(s for Zn, Al, In, Sn, and Pb is given in the appendix, where we also tabulated ZEco for these materials. In all cases the qualitative behaviour is similar. First z~/z~co decreases significantly with decreasing s then it increases again for very short mean free paths. For Zn and Al this increase is very s t r o n g and occurs already for s between 10 nm and 1 nm. For Sn, In, and Pb, the increase becomes weaker and happens at mean free paths well below 1 nm.

5) of ref. 16 has been approximated. (67) of the p r e s e n t work [ s e e e q s . ( 4 6 ) and (48) of ref. 102]. Here, Nq is the quasiparticle density of s t a t e s [2]. For E~ - it is N o/Nq ~ 1 and the f a c t o r b e c o m e s unimportant. in f r o m eq. 42z E. It is remarked t h a t for deriving eq. (70) a reduction of the energy gap due to a t r a n s p o r t c u r r e n t has not been considered: At the critical c u r r e n t o f a thin wire it is I~l/Id2ol = (2/3)1/% Since ~ ( r ) ~ A ( r ) , where /~(r) is the order p a r a m e t e r of the microscopic theoryE5], also I & ( r ) l is suppressed by a f a c t o r o f ( 2 / 3 ) 1/2 below its value IA0(r)l in the absence of c u r r e n t s and magnetic fields.