By Graham Walker
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Extra resources for Cryocoolers: Part 1: Fundamentals
It is now a common feature of gas liquefaction machinery. Introduction 9 The first expansion engine for hydrogen was constructed by Claude in 1920 to separate hydrogen from coke oven gas. The hydrogen engine was similar in design to the earlier air engines. In his book Collins (1958) includes photographs of Claude expansion engines and an account of similar engines used in the United States by duPont de Nemours. Helium was liquefied in an apparatus incorporating a helium expansion engine described, in 1934, by Peter Kapitza, then a professor at the University of Cambridge.
Iii. Electrocaloric refrigeration. A review of these methods of very low temperature refrigeration can be found in Chapter 12, and in excellent books by Lounasmaa (1974) and Betts (1974), and in the survey papers by Steyart (1978). This historical review is far from complete. We have entirely neglected the history and development of large-scale cryogenic refrigeration for gas liquefaction, tonnage oxygen production, and the like. This properly belongs to a future companion volume directed specifically to large-scale systems and turbines.
Among these, Philips Laboratories in Briarcliff Manor, New York, supported by the resources of the Philips Laboratories at Eindhoven, has to be one of the most experienced. They have a continuous program extending back to the earliest days of the pioneer Stirling engine work by Kohler at Eindhoven. 14 Chapter 1 Similarly, Cryogenic Technology Inc. has a broad experience in both regenerative and recuperative cooling engines extending back through A. D. , to the pioneer work of Samuel Collins at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.