By Stanley Hartland
Counter-Current Extraction: An creation to the layout and Operation of Counter-Current Extractors supply necessary conclusions and effects touching on counter-current extraction. This e-book goals to give illustrations of a few of the mathematical options as instruments in addition to skill to an finish.
Organized into 8 chapters, this publication starts with an summary of many of the features of the move of a unmarried solute among immiscible levels in counter-current movement. this article then describes all attainable components and obtains their courting to the extraction issue and variety of phases or move devices. different chapters contemplate the flows and concentrations in counter-current ahead and again extraction. This publication discusses besides the optimization of ahead and again extraction utilizing counter-current circulate in differential and stagewise extractors. the ultimate bankruptcy offers with extra purposes of counter-current extractions.
Undergraduates and researchers fascinated by the layout and operation of counter-current extractors will locate this booklet beneficial.
Read or Download Counter-Current Extraction. An Introduction to the Design and Operation of Counter-Current Extractors PDF
Similar introduction books
All people talks approximately itвЂ”how a lot it can save you , and earn, in case you commence an internet funding application. If youвЂ™ve determined youвЂ™re able to discover what all of the excitementвЂ™s approximately, youвЂ™re in success. making an investment on-line For Dummies has been thoroughly revised and up to date with the newest instruments, sites, rule adjustments, and advice which could make on-line making an investment effortless and ecocnomic.
The growing to be want for firms to handle provider layout, in addition to product layout, in an built-in demeanour is changing into more and more vital throughout a couple of industries. Product/Service process (PSS) is a promising enterprise version that businesses can use to extend their sustainability in a mature economic system.
In turning into your individual China inventory Guru, James Trippon, who runs the biggest autonomous fairness funding learn enterprise in Mainland China, unearths tips to take advantage of the funding possibilities on hand within the upward thrust of the world’s most recent monetary superpower. Trippon has invested within the chinese language marketplace for greater than 20 years and made his consumers thousands of greenbacks within the approach.
Translation of: creation to paintings learn, 4th rev. ed. , 1992
- Chimie Moleculaire Minerale Livres : Chimie moleculaire et supramoleculaire des sucres : introduction chimique aux glycosciences
- Triathlon for youth: training: a healthy introduction to competition
- Electronic Structure and Properties of Transition Metal Compounds: Introduction to the Theory, Second Edition
- Introduction to Basic Milling (Basic Engineering Training Guides)
- HOW TO TRADE IN STOCKS The Livermore Formula For Combining Time Element and Price
Additional info for Counter-Current Extraction. An Introduction to the Design and Operation of Counter-Current Extractors
L. The direction in which the stages are numbered may be used to introduce the inverse relationships. Deriving the equation in terms of χ rather than y merely replaces each concentration by its equilibrium value. n L &2 x n+1 G g τ yζ I yn I Lxn G y n +i Lx2 û Lxi yN k (B) FIG. l. Flows and concentrations in a stagewise contactor. Numbering stages (A) from y inlet and (B) from χ inlet. 1 to Ν and / or / * . However, the expressions involving / * are the inverses of the corresponding expressions involving / .
I) + y,n(J 2(1) - 1 N+1 Qlj2. 3. 3. 3. The fourth edition of the Chemical Engineers' Handbook™ quotes _q _ Xin x out ~ x(y0ut) x(yout) _ J — I j n +1 2(5) ι ^s = ' " t t i - ^ g y ^ * ] 2) ( In 1//* which are not self-consistent. 3. 3 n d 6 34 COUNTER-CURRENT EXTRACTION The former gives negative values of Ns as may be seen by comparison with formula VIII. ( x ut x ut Ο* = ° ~ ^y° ' 2(7) 2(8) and this also leads to negative values of N. Examples of the use of these latter formulae are given in Appendix2c.
When the full concentrations range is considered the corresponding figures are 16%, 2% and 31 %. Finally Chapter 7 reviews the conclusions which have been reached throughout the book. Using these foundations Chapter 8 suggests how the work may be extended to more complicated cases and applied to other fields. Some of the material in the book is summarised in references 8-13. Notation for Chapter 1 a interfacial area per unit volume A total area of contact between phases L and G «s/, £ß integration constants c intercept of equilibrium line on j>-axis Ε overall stage efficiency G flowrate of phase in which solute concentration is y h distance along differential contactor H total length of a differential contactor Htu height of overall transfer unit J extraction factor ( / = mG/L) J* inverse extraction factor (J* = LjmG) kg individual mass transfer coefficient for phase G ki individual mass transfer coefficient for phase L kG overall mass transfer coefficient based on G phase overall mass transfer coefficient based on L phase kL L flowrate of phase in which solute concentration is χ m slope of equilibrium line (equation y = mx + c) η number of a typical stage 19 INTRODUCTION N number of theoretical stages or transfer units NA number of actual stages NG number of overall transfer units based on phase of flowrate G NL number of overall transfer units based on phase of flowrate L number of theoretical stages Ns NT number of transfer units Q separation factor (defined by equation 1 (3)) Q* inverse separation factor (defined by equation 1 (6)) s cross-sectional area of contactor S flowrate of intermediate solvent u superficial velocity of L phase ν superficial velocity of G phase χ solute concentration in phase of flowrate L x(y) χ concentration in equilibrium with concentration y (x(y) = (y - c)lm) y Solute concentration in phase of flowrate G y(x) y concentration in equilibrium with concentration χ (y(x) = mx + c) Greek symbols λ ξ φ χ ψ overall extraction factor in cross-current (λ = 7/(1 + / ) ) dimensionless χ concentration based on and yin dimensionless y concentration based on and yia dimensionless x concentration based on and xout dimensionless y concentration based on and yout Subscripts in out C G L 2a H-CC refers refers refers refers refers to inlet of contactor to outlet of contactor to cross-current extraction to phase of flowrate G to phase of flowrate L extraction concentrations xln concentrations χΐΛ concentrations xin concentrations yin 20 COUNTER-CURRENT EXTRACTION Superscript * denotes inversion The above quantities may be expressed in any set of consistent units in which force and mass are not defined independently.