By Martin G. Richards
Ken Livingstone was once elected Mayor of London on a platform that integrated a congestion cost for principal London, a coverage that turned truth on 17 February 2003. Richards makes use of his event as Director of a bliog?2.5 million govt congestion charging research, as a type of who created the scheme Livingstone followed and as consultant to the London meeting, to supply a severe list of the advent of the London Congestion cost, and of its implications for congestion charging in other places.
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Extra info for Congestion Charging in London: The Policy and the Politics
With higher cost licences, the potential for counterfeiting is very real. Although it has been suggested that modern anti-fraud printing devices could control counterfeiting, if production costs are to be consistent with the face value of the licence, it is unlikely any would allow reliable recognition from the roadside. Indeed, whether legal or counterfeit, checking licences in the windscreens of passing vehicles is not easy. Prior to the introduction of the London Congestion Charge, only 20 per cent of trafﬁc entering central London parked on-street; the remainder either travelled through the area or parked off-street, mainly 32 Congestion Charging in London in private vehicle parks.
William Vickrey William Vickrey was an economist whose skill and tenacity led to the award of the Nobel Prize for Economics, just before he died in 1996. His ﬁrst contribution to transport pricing was a 1951 proposal to overcome congestion on the New York subway by increasing fares at peak periods and on heavily trafﬁcked sections (Vickrey, 1955a). Although the application was to an urban railway, the underlying theory underpins much of his later work on highway congestion pricing. Vickrey developed these ideas further in a paper on marginal cost pricing for public utilities, published in 1955, in which he recognized the impact of the marginal user on other, later users, by using the example of someone searching for a parking space.
Fifth, for some there is a simple ﬁnancial rationale based on the expectation that congestion charging can provide a new (net) revenue stream, increasing the funding available for investment in transport. 5 2003 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 60 Changes in the Real Cost of Transport and in Income, UK, 1980 to Finally, there is a concern within the UK about the growing imbalance between motoring costs and those of travelling by bus or rail.