By W. Clauss, U. Speck (auth.), Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Vogl, Dr. Wolfram Clauß, Prof. Guo-Zhen Li, Prof. Kyung Mo Yeon (eds.)
In January 1995, three hundred members from Asia, united states, and Europe vigorous mentioned the "State of the paintings and destiny points of CT" in Peking, China. The workshop used to be designed to hide all crucial points of recent CT imaging together with the old improvement, various concepts, distinction brokers, organ structures, and symptoms. The comparative evaluate of CT as opposed to MRI and ultrasound was once a crucial subject. also, a unique consultation used to be devoted to "Angiography Tomorrow". This publication summarizes the cutting-edge in either traditional and spiral CT imaging and gives a few feedback as for the longer term position of the method.
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Additional info for Computed Tomography: State of the Art and Future Applications
In the following, the progress in contrast media research and development will be reviewed. X-ray technology - and especially contrast agents for use in computed tomography - will cover the broadest area. Since its first clinical application in 1971 computed tomography (CT) has made very rapid progress. Two major objectives have been followed during this developmental process, first, improving the resolution and, second, shortening scanning and evaluation times. While scan times of the first generation CT machines were in the order of minutes and reconstitution of images took additional time, today only 1-2 s are necessary (fast CT).
Kalender Fig. 6 a,b Clinical examples showing the high spatial resolution offered by spiral CT in all directions. a Muliplanar display of spiral CT axamination of the knee (2-mm slice thickness, 3-mm table feed per s. b CT angiography: maximum intensity projection display of the intracranial arterial circulation Patient Dose Considerations Concern about patient dose in radiographic procedures has always been great and is increasing as alternative imaging modalities such as MRI and ultrasound, which do not use ionizing radiation, improve steadily in performance.
One possibility is through the attack of enzymes. However, these enzymes have to be present in the blood, since this is the only body compartment which can be reached by non-extravasating substances. In blood, esterases are available which can be utilized for the purpose of biodegradation of iodine-carrying polymers. Although polymers which are biodegradable per se are available such as starch or polyesters, they are usually no longer degraded after derivatization with iodine. The reason is most probably steric hindrance of the enzyme systems involved.