Cognitive Science (2nd Edition) (Handbook of Perception and by Benjamin Martin Bly, David E. Rumelhart

By Benjamin Martin Bly, David E. Rumelhart

The interdisciplinary box of cognitive technology brings jointly parts of cognitive psychology, arithmetic, notion, and linguistics. targeting the most components of exploration during this box this present day, Cognitive Science provides accomplished overviews of study findings and discusses new cross-over components of curiosity. participants symbolize the main senior and well-established names within the box. This quantity serves as a high-level advent, with enough breadth to be a graduate-level textual content, and sufficient intensity to be a valued reference resource to researchers.

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Additional info for Cognitive Science (2nd Edition) (Handbook of Perception and Cognition)

Sample text

The problem is that because the nervous system has no representation of the relation between the kinematics and the dynamics, it has no way of relating the errors, which are kinematic (deviations from planned trajectories), to the dynamics (the pattern of forces that generated the trajectory). Thus, it cannot use observed trajectory errors to make goal-directed changes in the planning process; it can only proceed by random trial and error. 2. Adaptation to Artificially Manipulated Dynamics Although roboticists have not yet made computer-controlled robots that can reach and wipe as well as a frog can, they have nonetheless made enough progress to permit highly instructive experimental manipulations of the forces that a human arm encounters during a reach.

By contrast, the axes of the integrator’s coordinates are horizontal and vertical. This means that the horizontal and vertical-torsional pulses that cause saccadic eye movements must be computed in such a way as to maintain the eye in the zerotorsion positions demanded by Donders’ law. To do this, the circuitry that generates these motor pulses must take into account the position of the eye at the start of the saccade. , 10Њ to the right and 5Њ up) differs depending on the starting position of the eye.

However, recent direct measurements of the trajectory of the equilibrium point during reaching movements show that this trajectory is much less smooth than the actual trajectory of the hand (Gomi & Kawato, 1996). That is, if the hand and arm had no mass—and hence, were always at the equilibrium point of the force field throughout the movement—their movements would be much less smooth than they actually are; the velocity profile instead of being a smooth bell shape, would have multiple peaks. The equilibrium-point hypothesis cannot readily explain the fact that the kinematics of reaching movements are invariant under substantial changes in speed and substantial changes in load (the weight in the hand).

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