Chemistry of the Lower Atmosphere by Hans R. Pruppacher (auth.), S. I. Rasool (eds.)

By Hans R. Pruppacher (auth.), S. I. Rasool (eds.)

About 3 years in the past Catherine de Berg and that i released a brief article in Nature during which we tried to provide an explanation for why the chemistry of the ambience of the Earth is this present day so different from that of our neighbor­ ing planets, Mars and Venus. Our surroundings consists as a rule of N2 and O with strains of A, H0, CO , zero , and so forth. , whereas the atmospheres of either 2 2 2 three Mars and Venus are virtually solely made of CO , additionally, the Earth looks 2 to be the one one ofthe 3 planets which has oceans ofliquid water at the floor. because the presence of liquid water in the world is perhaps an important requirement for all times to have originated and developed to its current nation, the query of the obvious absence ofliquid water on Mars and Venus unexpectedly acquires major proportions. In our paper in Nature, and later in a extra exact dialogue of the topic (Planetary Atmospheres, in Exobiology, edited through C. Ponnamperuma, North Holland Publishing Co. ), we attempted to explain why we think that during the early heritage of the sun method all of the terrestrial planets misplaced the atmospheres of H2 and He which that they had bought from the sun nebula on the time in their formation. those planets, thoroughly without atmos­ pheres, just like the Moon this present day, all started collecting new gases that have been exhumed from the internal by way of the graduation of volcanic activity.

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M. m) in the atmosphere. The third and broadest requirement of an IFN embraces all the characteristics of the interface between the nucleus and ice. The free energy associated with the interface between an IFN and ice must be as small as possible. This energy is affected by the following factors. (a) The chemical nature of an IFN, characterized by the type of chemical bonds which are exhibited at its surface, clearly affects the interface energy.

In this case, rg = rN and the critical saturation ratio necessary to nucleate a drop can simply be obtained from the Kelvin equation giving In Sc = 2(JwvMw/PwRTrg (27) For particles which exhibit a finite wetting angle toward water, Eqs. (21H26) have to be solved simultaneously. Recently, McDonald [84] transformed this system of equations for the case J = 1 germ particle- 1 sec- 1 and T = 273°K into a working equation applicable to atmospheric cloud conditions where small supersaturations prevail.

Atmas. ) continental clouds tend to belong to the latter. Squires suggested that differences in the cloud microstructure of maritime and continental clouds have to be explained in terms of differences between the maritime and continental aerosol and only to a lesser extent in terms of differences in upcurrent, turbulence level, or total lifetime of parcels of cloud air. Twomey and Squires [115] and Twomey and Warner [116] computed the cloud drop concentration which would be expected from the observed CCN spectra and the observed updrafts in various clouds and compared these computed values with the observed cloud drop concentrations.

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