By Matt Hayler
What's 'technology'? What does it support us to do? What does it strength us to think about approximately our adventure of being on the earth? In not easy the Phenomena of expertise, expertise is located as an adventure with particular positive aspects, instead of as a category of items, and this allows a mirrored image at the ways that amateurs and specialists engage with the artefacts that every one people depend upon. utilizing e-readers, akin to the Kindle and iPad, as a case learn, Hayler argues that using expertise is either extra complex and extra human than public dialogue frequently provides it credits for, forcing us to think about its affects on belief, cognition, and what it capability to grasp whatever in any respect.
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Extra info for Challenging the Phenomena of Technology: Embodiment, Expertise, and Evolved Knowledge
Idoru ( 28–29) Hayles, in contrast, offers a far more balanced critique of the effects of screen reading, combining her own phenomenological reports with her experience as a university professor training hundreds of students in close reading over years of changing approaches and attitudes to the print reading experience, and also drawing on the research presented by Carr in The Shallows. She is most interested in the information readers glean from surfing online, a potentially more distracted mode: The small distractions involved with hypertext and web reading – clicking on links, navigating a page, scrolling down or up, and so on – increases the cognitive load on working memory and thereby reduces the amount of new material it can hold.
But, if [Maryanne] Wolf’s evidence is right, Johnson’s metaphor of exercise is misguided. When reading goes well ... it feels effortless ... It makes you smarter because it leaves more of your brain alone. (“Twilight of the Books”) 29 For more on this effect see the original study, widely reported with commentary from Gary Small et al. “Your Brain on Google ... ” 32 Challenging the Phenomena of Technology Such circles of evidence, typically drawing on reports of reports of primary research, are common; commentators are citing just a few other writers and researchers because the diversity of studies and discussion simply isn’t there, let alone a consensus view.
Several studies point to the importance of addressing the multisensory dimension of digital reading ... without really pursuing the issue any further” (Mangen, “Hypertext ... 27 The kind of studies Mangen calls for are beginning to emerge (often through Mangen’s own work),28 but their evidence remains inconclusive, in no small part due to the ever-changing diversity of screens that readers can face and the relative newness of this class of artefacts. As researchers attempt to investigate variations on theories such as Carr’s, one fact does become clear: the workings of the brain have entered the discourse on the subject at every level – academic, journalistic, casual blogging – and, often frustratingly, to the detriment of the rest of the body.