Carbon-based Solids and Materials by Pierre Delhaes(auth.)

By Pierre Delhaes(auth.)

Content material:
Chapter 1 A ancient evaluation (pages 1–24):
Chapter 2 Polymorphism of Crystalline stages (pages 25–59):
Chapter three Non?Crystalline Carbons (pages 61–96):
Chapter four spinoff Compounds and Analogs (pages 97–126):
Chapter five From fragrant Precursors to the Graphene aircraft (pages 127–167):
Chapter 6 basic Structural houses (pages 169–215):
Chapter 7 digital constructions and Magnetic homes (pages 217–264):
Chapter eight digital shipping homes (pages 265–319):
Chapter nine Optical houses and their functions (pages 321–367):
Chapter 10 Vibrational homes (pages 369–408):
Chapter eleven floor and Interface Phenomena (pages 409–459):
Chapter 12 Chemical Reactivity and floor therapy (pages 461–502):
Chapter thirteen Divided and Porous Carbons (pages 503–552):
Chapter 14 Carbon Filaments, Composites and Heterogenous Media (pages 553–590):
Chapter 15 Use of Carbon fabrics (pages 591–630):

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Example text

An equilibrium has been reached between the production of C14 by cosmic irradiation and its natural decay. Hence, all living organisms exhibit the same isotopic distribution than Earth’s atmosphere and oceanic carbonates. When a living system dies, exchange with the environment stops and the inflow of carbon from the outside is interrupted. From this moment onwards, the quantity of C14 declines according to the radioactive decay law. By using modern titration methods, based on mass spectroscopy and β irradiation detectors, the half-life currently accepted is T = 5,730 ± 40 years, taking the year 1950 of our era as the reference point [LAN 92].

40 Carbon-based Solids and Materials Different strategies have been created in order to prepare carbynes and they can be divided into two categories. The first is a physical approach starting from molten or vaporized phases related to the use of a large amount of heat [HEI 99]. 3) and the presence in the vapor phase of small conjugated atomic chains that are most stable when the number of atoms does not exceed 10 [PAI 93]. The alternative to the simple formation of oligomers is a chemical methodology that has been greatly developed in recent years to produce true polymers by reducing precursors while maintaining an unchanged backbone [KAV 94] or by controlling the polymerization [HEI 99].

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