Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons and biexcitons by S. A. Moskalenko, D. W. Snoke

By S. A. Moskalenko, D. W. Snoke

Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons is a different impression within which the digital states of a superior can self-organize to procure quantum part coherence. The phenomenon is heavily associated with Bose-Einstein condensation in different platforms reminiscent of liquid helium and laser-cooled atomic gases. protecting theoretical points in addition to contemporary experimental paintings, the booklet offers a accomplished survey of the sphere. After introducing the appropriate simple physics of excitons, the authors talk about exciton-phonon interactions in addition to the habit of biexcitons. in addition they conceal exciton phase-transitions and provides specific awareness to nonlinear optical results together with the optical Stark impression and chaos in excitonic platforms. The thermodynamics of equilibrium, quasiequilibrium, and nonequilibrium platforms are tested intimately. all through, the authors interweave theoretical and experimental effects. The booklet may be of significant curiosity to graduate scholars and researchers in semiconductor and superconductor physics, quantum optics, and atomic physics.

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This Monte Carlo process is repeated hundreds of thousands of times, which allows the system to reach ‘equilibrium’ [52]. 19) [54]. Additionally, the effects of RH on the pull-off force between AFM cantilevers and substrates of varying hydrophilicity can be predicted qualitatively with this method. Specifically, a maximum in the adhesion force is predicted around 30% RH for a strongly hydrophilic tip; a plateau above 34% is predicted for a hydrophobic tip, due to the interaction of two confined layers of water; and a monotonic increase is predicted for a slightly hydrophilic tip [46, 55].

To avoid this difficulty, the variable transformation x → p has been introduced, and the range of integration has changed correspondingly from [rn, ), for which rn can be arbitrarily small, to [1, ). Note also that the functions εi and μi are complex. 61, the integrand must be complex-differentiable. Complex-valued functions often contain points, zeroes, poles, asymptotes, and other features at which they are not complex-differentiable in Cartesian coordinates. 66. 61 to be mapped onto a space over which it is complex-differentiable over the range of integration.

21 Field-emission SEM micrograph of an alumina particle mounted on the tip of an AFM cantilever. Reproduced with permission [132]. 21. In an attempt to more accurately characterize the Hamaker coefficient, the geometries of the tips are often characterized by either reverse imaging [130] or scanning electron microscopy [11, 130, 131], while the surface roughness is often estimated based on AFM topographical images [132]. 53, to model this force [132–136]. 22 demonstrates another experimental approach to measure the Hamaker coefficients for the silicon nitride/ruthenium system in air [128].

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