By Martin W. Bowman
E-book via Bowman, Martin W.
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Extra info for Boeing (Images of America)
Growth rates are also likely to be dissimilar for different types of vehicles, from cars through to heavy freight vehicles. An average annual growth in traffic of 1% per year was used in all the standard test case analysis runs. This growth rate may be low for some countries. However, capacity problems may arise if a higher value is used when considering roads with high levels of traffic at the start of the analysis. For example, a road with an initial daily traffic flow (AADT) of 100 000 vehicles and growing at 2% a year will need capacity for 220 000 vehicles after 40 years.
As well, the analysis has shown that advanced long-life wearing courses with a 40-year life will be more economical when user costs are taken into account, as there are significant benefits in avoiding disruption to road users due to maintenance. The analysis of cases other than the standard one and the sensitivity testing undertaken leads to the following additional conclusions: • There are likely to be at least some savings for heavily trafficked roads (above 80 000 AADT) at any of the discount rates assessed.
Scaling (deterioration of surface of concrete pavements). • Polishing (reduced surface friction). • Pitting (studded tyre wear). • Debonding and delamination (loss of mechanical continuity between two adjacent courses, such as the wearing course and the binder course). At the next level are contractor-related issues that arise during production and construction of pavements or during their maintenance and reconstruction. Typical construction issues include thickness of the pavement, surface preparation, time-toconstruct (cure time if applicable), mode of construction, paving environment, load limitations and geometry issues, as well as traffic control and safety (worker and motorist) issues.