Biomechanics of Soft Tissue in Cardiovascular Systems by VIEN, Gerhard A. Holzapfel, Ray W. Ogden

By VIEN, Gerhard A. Holzapfel, Ray W. Ogden

The publication is written by way of top specialists within the box offering an up to date view of the subject material in a didactically sound demeanour. It provides a overview of the present wisdom of the behaviour of soppy tissues within the cardiovascular approach lower than mechanical quite a bit, and the significance of constitutive legislation in knowing the underlying mechanics is highlighted. Cells also are defined including arteries, tendons and ligaments, center, and different organic tissues of present learn curiosity in biomechanics. This contains experimental, continuum mechanical and computational views, with the emphasis on nonlinear behaviour, and the simulation of mechanical techniques comparable to balloon angioplasty.

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CZl 20- ·"'J•c •• •. ~~~ ~ 10 f- fa•~· 8fS:DfP 0 • •ooo o 0 o I I _l I 20 40 60 80 100 Age Y(Year) Figure 19. Age-related changes in aortic stiffness (in vivo measurements) (reproduced from Kawasaki eta!. (1987) and Reneman eta!. (1986)). 3 Mechanical Properties of Cells It is now well recognized that cells change their shape, structure, mechanical properties, and function in response to mechanical stress. Because cytoskeletal structure is closely related to cell function and is directly reflected in the mechanical properties of cells, the determination of cell properties should contribute much to the study of the mechanisms of tissue and organ physiology, diseases, and other events that occur in the body.

This parameter has been used for the evaluation of the stiffness of arteries not only in basic investigations, but also in clinical studies (Hayashi (1993)). As stated above, one of the most important merits of this parameter is that it does not depend on the pressure in the physiological pressure range. At the standard pressure P 8 , the parameters described by eqs. (19) and (20) are converted into the stiffness parameter as follows: (22) 2. Elastic Modulus To represent the elastic properties of wall material, it is necessary to use a material parameter such as the so-called elastic modulus or Young's modulus, which is the slope of a linear stressstrain relation.

2 i 0 c___L_ ____l_LlLLLLLL Aorta Lateral Medial (n = 6) (n = 6) (n = 6) Figure 27. Parameter values calculated from force-indentation relations at three locations in the rabbit aortic bifurcation (Miyazaki and Hayashi (1999)). and cardiac myocytes, respectively, and also described their tensile properties. However, they did not determine tensile force-elongation relations or the tensile strength of these cells. Glerum et a!. (1990) determined the tensile properties of smooth muscle cells obtained from the pig urinary bladder and human uterus by knotting the ends of a single cell around the tips of a pair of micropipettes and moving one of the micropipettes.

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