Biology, Vol. 4 (Pr-Z) by Richard Robinson

By Richard Robinson

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It is the job of the smaller ribosomal subunit to locate the AUG codon that will be used as the starting point for translation (called the initiation codon). Although always starting at AUG helps solve the reading frame problem, finding the right AUG is not an entirely straightforward task. There is often more than one AUG codon in an mRNA, and the small ribosomal subunit must find the correct one if the right protein is to be made. base pair two nucleotides (either DNA or RNA) linked by weak bonds complementary matching opposite 14 Initiation in Prokaryotes.

The helix-turn-helix motif is common to many gene repressor proteins that bind to DNA sequences. Rigorous statistical analyses of the amino acid sequences of these motifs suggest that these repressor proteins all evolved from a common ancestral gene and that certain amino acid residues in the motif structure are crucial to maintain the helix-turn-helix structure of the motif. hydrolysis splitting with water 12 Serine proteases (for example, chymotrypsin, a digestive enzyme in mammals) consist of two ␤ barrel domains, the ends of which come together to form an active site.

These release factors cause the ribosome to cleave the finished protein off the tRNA in the P site. A third release factor, RF3, is responsible for releasing RF1 and RF2 from the ribosome after they have recognized the stop codon and caused the protein to be cleaved off the tRNA. Eukaryotes appear to have one protein, eRF1, that performs the functions of RF1 and RF2, and a second protein, eRF3, that performs the function of RF3. Once released, the protein can then go on to perform its function in the cell.

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