Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials by Siegfried Hofmann

By Siegfried Hofmann

To an individual who's attracted to floor chemical research of fabrics at the nanometer scale, this booklet is ready to provide acceptable details. in keeping with usual software examples in fabrics technological know-how, a concise method of all facets of quantitative research of surfaces and skinny motion pictures with AES and XPS is equipped. ranging from simple ideas that are step-by-step built into virtually important equations, vast tips is given to graduate scholars in addition to to skilled researchers. Key chapters are these on quantitative floor research and on quantitative intensity profiling, together with fresh advancements in subject matters corresponding to floor excitation parameter and backscattering correction issue. uncomplicated relatives are derived for emission and excitation attitude dependencies within the research of bulk fabric and of fractional nano-layer constructions, and for either gentle and tough surfaces. it truly is proven how you can optimize the analytical technique, signal-to-noise ratio, sure bet and detection restrict. labored examples for quantification of alloys and of layer constructions in sensible circumstances (e.g. illness, evaporation, segregation and oxidation) are used to significantly evaluation assorted methods to quantification with appreciate to regular matrix correction elements and matrix relative sensitivity components. cutting-edge concerns in quantitative, harmful and non-destructive intensity profiling are mentioned with emphasis on sputter intensity profiling and on perspective resolved XPS and AES. bearing in mind preferential sputtering and electron backscattering corrections, an creation to the mixing-roughness-information intensity (MRI) version and its extensions is gifted.

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Or the constant or fixed analyzer transmission (CAT or FAT) mode, where E D const. E=E D const:/ mode is generally used in AES, in XPS, the FAT mode is exclusively used in XPS. 36 2 Instrumentation Advantages and disadvantages of the CMA and the CHA are summarized in the following by a comparison of the principles and operation of both devices. (a) Transmission. A high transmission is the prerequisite of high detection sensitivity (see Chap. 6). Because of the full 2 acceptance cone of the CMA, the geometrical point source transmission is usually higher (typically about 14%, see Sect.

Several beam lines at the circumference provide access to the emitted radiation. 13]. There are two main features that make Synchrotron XPS very attractive as compared to conventional X-ray sources: (a) the extremely high brightness of the excitation and (b) the tunable photon energy. 3 Electron Gun 23 of the trade-off between resolution and transmission. The high photon flux also enhances photoelectron diffraction measurements (see Sect. 8). By tuning the photon energy, the kinetic energy and in turn the information depth of the photoelectrons can be varied (see Sect.

B) Action of a monochromator crystal on the Al K’1;2 radiation. The shadowed region is the excitation line shape with FWHM D 0:16 eV which puts a limit to the experimental resolution (see Sect. 3) (Reproduced from M. Cardona and L. 5]. Copyright by Springer Verlag) used for convenient Bragg law dispersion and for focusing the X-rays to the sample surface. 6 mm, and careful adjustment is crucial for optimum operation. Of course, the photon flux is much reduced compared to a normal X-ray source.

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