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Additional info for Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry. Atomic Theory and Structure of the Atom
It rapidly evaporates, but if the current is switched off the remaining liquid faUs to the bench top. 3. PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE IN THE ANHYDROUS STATE Place about 100 ml of toluene over calcium chloride for a day or two in a corked flask and then filter into a 100 ml stoppered 30 Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry cylinder or bottle. Arrange an apparatus to generate dry hydrogen chloride and bubble the gas through the toluene until it appears to be saturated. Pour the solution of hydrogen chloride in toluene on to a piece of marble and a strip of magnesium in two separate flasks.
The benzene evaporated and left a film of known weight. By means of a very light paddle floating on the water and attached to a lever to which small weights could be fixed, Langmuir was able 44 Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry to measure the force exerted by the film for different film areas (Fig. 5). The area was varied by moving a piece of wood coated with wax towards the paddle. He was thus able to plot force-area curves. The results are shown in Fig. 6. For large areas of film the force was very small, but on compression it increased at first slowly and then very rapidly.
Definite values for atomic radii were not obtained until the beginning of the present century. Most of the methods used are too complex for consideration here. Three will be discussed brieñy. (i) THE VAN DER WAALS EQUATON A normal gas does not obey the simple gas law PV = RT, since the molecules exert attractions or repulsions on each other and occupy a definite fraction of the total space depending upon the temperature and pressure. Van der Waals derived an equation Ρ+ψ-^ν-b) = RT, * Electrostatic units of charge are converted to electromagnetic units by dividing by the velocity of light 2-998 x 10^° cm/sec.