Atomic and Molecular Processes by D.R. Bates

By D.R. Bates

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Entered into their quantumVI VII TI TII vI vII electrodynamical commutation relations, which they wrote explicitly, W h …I Y II † …II Y I † b jAxx À Axx jY b b b 2p b b b b b b b h …I Y II † …II Y I † b …I † …II † b jAxy À Axy jY b hEx hEy d a 2p b b b …I † …II † b b hEx hHx d 0Y b b b b b b b h …I Y II † …I † …II † …II Y I † b b hEx hHy d jBxy À Bxy jX Y 2p …I † …II † hEx hEx d …642† 700 Chapter IV The Conceptual Completion and the Extensions of Quantum Mechanics From the relations (642), they derived immediately `that the averages of all ®eld components over the same space-time region commute, and therefore can be measured independently of each other,' and further `that the averages of two di¨erent-types of components, like Ex and Hy , over arbitrary time intervals commute if the respective space regions coincide' (Bohr and Rosenfeld, 1933, p.

3±4). , large compared to atomic dimensions) having an approximately constant charge distribution. Further, `the ®eld quantities are not represented by genuine point-functions but by functions of space-time regions, which correspond formally to the average values of the idealized ®eld components over the regions under investigation' (Bohr and Rosenfeld, loc. , p. 5). , nonrelativistic] quantum-mechanical measurement problems,' Bohr and Rosenfeld emphasized, and then sketched the main aspects of their treatment as follows: For measurements of ®eld quantities, each result measured is well de®ned on the basis of the classical ®eld concept; the limited application of the classical ®eld theory for describing the unavoidable electromagnetic ®eld actions of the test bodies in the measurements leads, as we shall see, to the consequence that those ®eld actions in¯uence to a certain extent the very result of the measurement in an uncontrollable manner.

We where Ry…II † ˆ Ey therefore arrive at the conclusion mentioned already in the beginning that the quantum theory of ®elds represents, as far as the problem of measurability is concerned, an idealization which is free from contradictions insofar as we can forget about all restrictions created by the atomistic structure of ®eld sources and of the measurement apparatus,' Bohr and Rosenfeld ®nished their long memoir (Bohr and Rosenfeld, loc. , p. 820 (d) The Continuation of the Debate on Causality with the Berlin Physicists (1929±1935) In the early discussions of the causality problem immediately following Heisenberg's derivation of the uncertainty relations, we have thus far missed certain voices that one would have expected to hear from the conservative side, notably, 819 Bohr summarized this work in the general discussion at the seventh Solvay Conference on Physics in Brussels (in Institut International de Physique Solvay, ed, 1934).

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