Atari Roots. A Guide to Atari Assembly Language by Mark Andrews

By Mark Andrews

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Extra info for Atari Roots. A Guide to Atari Assembly Language

Example text

Here is a brief summation of the functions of each of these registers. The 6502's Other Registers • The X Register (abbreviated "X") is an 8-bit register that is often used for temporary storage of data during a program. But the X register has a special feature, too; it can be incremented and decremented with a pair of one-byte assembly language instructions (INX and DEX), and it is therefore often used as an index register, or counter, during loops and read/data-type instructions in programs .

ENTER AN 8-BIT BINARY NUMBER:":? :INPUT BN$ 35 IF LEN(BN$)< >B THEN 30 40 FOR L=1 TO B 50 T$=BN$(L) 55 IF T$< >"0" AND T$< >" 1" THEN 30 60 BIT(L)=VAL(T$) 70 NEXT L 75 ANS=0 80 M=256 90 FOR X=1 TO B 100 M=M/ 2:ANS=ANS+BIT(X)*M 110 NEXT X 140? "DECIMAL: "; ANS 150 GOTO 30 And here's a program for converting decimal numbers to binary numbers: converting Decimal Numbers to Binary Numbers 10 DIM BIN$(8),TEMP$(8),R$(1) 20 GRAPHICS 0 30? :? "DECIMAL-BINARY CONVERSION" 40? :? "ENTER A POSITIVE INTEGER (0 TO 255) :": ?

In case you can't get your hands on a programmer's calculator right away, here's an Atari BASIC program that will convert decimal numbers to hexadecimal numbers and vice versa. Another program is available on page H-18 of the BASIC Reference Manual that comes with the Atari BASIC cartridge. Dec-Hex and Hex-Dec Conversion program 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 REM REM HEX TO DEC CONVERSION PROGRAM REM REM THE FAST WAY REM DON'T USE MATH REM DIM H$(40),A$[40) REM 38 90 PRINT 100 PRINT 110 PRINT 120 PRINT "HEX TO DECIMAL CONVERSION" 130 PRINT 140 PRINT "H) HEX TO DEC" 150 PRINT "D) DEC TO HEX" 160 PRINT 1801NPUT A$ 190 IF A$="H" THEN 220 200 IF A$="D" THEN 400 210GOT0100 220 REM 230 REM CONVERT HEX TO DECIMAL 240 REM 250 PRINT "ENTER HEX NUMBER"; 260 INPUT H$ 270 REM 2800=0 290 S=1 :REM POSITIONAL MULTIPLIER 295 REM GO THROUGH THE STRING 300 FOR L=LEN[H$) TO 1 STEP-1 310 A$=H$[L,L) 320 REM 330 REM CONVERT "0"-"F' TO 0-15 340 N=ASC[A$)-48:IF N>9 THEN N=N-7 345 IF N<0 OR N>15 THEN 90 350D=D+N*S 360 S=S*16 370 NEXT L 380 PRINT "HEX ";H$;" = DEC ";0 390 GOTO 90 400 REM 410 REM CONVERT DECIMAL TO HEX 420 REM 430 PRINT "ENTER DECIMAL TO CONVERT' 440 INPUT 0 450 REM 460 REM FIRST FIND THE HIGHEST DIGIT 470 REM 480 S=16 39 490 X=2 500 IF S9));:REM CONVERT DEC TO HEX 0-F 550 T=T-N*S:S=S/16 560 NEXT L 570 PRINT 580 GOTO 90 That concludes our crash course into bits, bytes, and binary.

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