Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (Cambridge by Jack C. Richards, Theodore S. Rodgers

By Jack C. Richards, Theodore S. Rodgers

This re-creation surveys the most important methods and strategies in language instructing. This re-creation is an intensive revision of the 1st version of this profitable textual content. just like the first version, it surveys the key methods and strategies in language educating, comparable to grammar translation, audiolingualism, communicative language educating, and the typical strategy. This variation comprises new chapters on issues corresponding to entire language, a number of intelligences, neurolinguistic programming, competency-based language instructing, cooperative language studying, content-based guide, task-based language educating, and the Post-Methods period. academics and teachers-in-training will realize that this moment version is a finished survey and research of the main and minor educating tools used all over the world.

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T a n t que l’em pire rom ain fu t in tact, la com m unication p erm an ente en tre les différentes provinces — le com m erce d an s la M éditerranée éta it trè s florissant •— em p êch ait une sép ara tio n lin­ guistique com plète; on se co m prenait m utuellem ent. M ais ap rè s la chute définitive de l’em pire, depuis le 5e siècle, les com m unications d evenant difficiles e t rares, les pay s s’isolaient, et, d e p lus e n plus, chaque région suivait so n développem ent p articulier; com m e en m êm e tem p s la culture littéraire, qui au rait pu continuer de serv ir de lien e n tre les différentes parties du m onde rom anisé, to m b a it dans une extrêm e décadence, il ne restait plus rien pour co n treb alan cer les p ro g rès de l’isolem ent lin­ guistique, auquel coopérait encore la d iversité des év énem ents et développem ents h istoriq u es dan s les différentes provinces.

Pour désigner ce latin parlé, les érudits se serv en t d u term e «le latin vulgaire». Ce ne so n t pas, il est vrai, les savants m odernes qui o n t inventé l’expression; dans la basse antiquité déjà, e t dans les prem iers siècles du m oyen âge, on désignait le langage du peuple p a r opposition au langage litté ra ire comme langue «rustique» ou «vulgaire» (lingua latin a rustica, vulgatis); et ainsi on a appelé longtem ps le,s langues rom anes elles-mêmes p ar ce term e; pour un Italien, un Espagnol, un Français du m oyen âge sa propre langue m aternelle fut longtem ps «la langue vulgaire»; D ante a donné à un de ses écrits, où il parle de la m anière de com poser des oeuvres littéraires en langue m aternelle, le titre «De vulgari eloquentia»; ju sq u ’au seizième siècle, c’est-à-dire ju sq u ’à ia Renaissance, cette m anière de désigner les langues rom anes était courante, et de fait, elles ne sont que la forme actuelie du développem ent du la tin vulgaire.

D epuis la fin du 2e siècle, cette tâche devient de plus en plus difficile; l’em pire, depuis ce tem ps, est n ettem en t su r la défensive; po u r des raisons sur lesquelles on a beau­ coup discuté, ses ressources s’épuisent, tan d is que la pression d u dehors s ’accroît, s u rto u t du côté des G erm ains au n o rd et d es P a rth e s à l’est. T outefois, la lu tte fut longue et dure; après les catastro p h es d u 3e siècle, D ioclétien e t C o n stan tin (prem ier em pereur chrétien) réu ssiren t pour une dernière fois à réorganiser l’adm in istratio n et à consolider les fron­ tières; ce ne fu t q u ’au 5e siècle que la p artie occidentale de l’em pire, avec l’ancienne capitale, s’écroula définitivem ent (476); l’em pire oriental, d o n t la capitale fut C onstantinople, s’est m aintenu encore p en d an t un m illénaire, ju sq u ’à la conquête tu rq u e au 15e siècle.

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