By Vernon Newhouse (Eds.)

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2. Increasing values of a cause the positive half-cycle to lengthen and the negative half-cycle to shorten, while the frequency is reduced by the factor (1 — a2)112. This is qualitatively easily understandable since the voltage drop iR adds to the applied emf IoR on the negative half-cycle and subtracts on the positive half-cycle. In- 36 ARNOLD H. SILVER AND JAMES E. ZIMMERMAN FIG. 16. Time evolution of the weak-link supercurrent in a resistive loop device. Selected values of a = ic/I and β = 2 ^ 4 / Φ 0 are shown to illustrate the effect of resistance and critical current.

In order to observe the harmonic amplitudes using a fixed frequency detector at ω0, it is necessary to set the dc bias level such that V0 = Φ0ω0/2πη = Φ0ω/2π in order that the nth harmonic of the oscillation at ω fall at the detector frequency ω0. With this experimental technique the harmonic amplitudes will vary as Vn ^ Φοω/ττ = Φοωο/πη (72) Thus the maximum available power in any harmonic is the product of current and voltage coefficients and varies as 1/n2, Pn 9É Φο2ωο/2τΓ2η2Ζ, (73) Practical signal-to-noise ratios are such that harmonics beyond the third or fourth harmonic are rarely seen.

4). The device can then be dc biased and operated as explained above for devices without shunt capacitance. The importance of thermodynamic considerations in the dc quantum interferometer is demonstrated by an interesting effect observed with Josephson tunneling junctions but not reported in similar experiments with point contacts. The observation of a multiplicity of critical current values for a given applied field Φχ has been reported by Fiske (1964), Jalkevic et al. (1965b), Goldman et al. (1965), and others, in tunneling junction devices where there are a multiplicity of allowed quantum states.