Animals and Science: A Guide to the Debates (Controversies by Niall Shanks

By Niall Shanks

Animals and technology examines what technological know-how has (and has now not) taught us concerning the nature of nonhuman animals and explores the ethical, non secular, social, and medical implications of these teachings. It indicates how the clinical learn of animals, specially their cognitive skills, has reworked our knowing of them. Animals and technological know-how lines our evolving realizing of animal soreness and considers its ethical relevance to people. It discusses Darwin's belief-shattering concept that species adjustments aren't absolute, then strains its impression to the current day.

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At a more theoretical level, medieval medicine was characterized by reliance on classical medical authorities such as Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicenna, the practice of medicine being shaped by prayer and the voice of ancient authority. The classical authorities bequeathed to medieval culture the hu14 • The Essence of the Problem: Medieval Legacies moral theory of disease—a theory that had been initially formulated by Empedocles and applied to medicine by no lesser fig u res than Hippocrates and Galen (Clendening 1960, p.

After the work of Servetus and Harvey, the details of pulmonary circulation and its coupling to the general circulatory system had become much clearer. Yet there were still puzzles concerning the function of the motion of the lungs. Some physicians maintained that the motions of the lungs served to promote the circulation of the blood. Writing after Harvey, Robert Hooke (1635–1703) performed an experiment in 1667 to settle this matter—an experiment that involved the coupling of an animal machine to machines of human design.

123) But di Lucci’s work was crude and contained many errors and was in fact treated by many anatomists as a supplement to Galen. Moreover, di Lucci’s book was basically a practical dissection manual, uninformed by the powerful mechanical metaphors that made The Essence of the Problem: Medieval Legacies • 17 possible the explosion of anatomical and physiological inquiry in the Renaissance. As we will see in the next chapter, these metaphors do their work by providing the investigator with a theoretical framework in terms of which structural and functional analogies between animals of different species can be located, organized, and conceptualized.

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