An Introduction to Spectroscopic Methods for the by F. Scheinmann (Eds.)

By F. Scheinmann (Eds.)

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Spectroscopic Methods for the Identification of Organic Compounds. Mass Spectrometry, Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (Recent Developments), Use of Various Spectral

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5 (p. 9). u. which is quite reasonable. (ii) The isotope pattern for one atom of chlorine is apparent in the vicinity of the molec­ ular ion peak [see the calculation, above (p. 13)]; moreover the chlorine atom is still present in the ions of mje 141, 127, 111, 99, and 85. (iii) Measurement of the relative heights of the molecular ion peak and the first and second isotope peaks leads to a probable molecular formula of CeH4ClN02 [see the cal­ culation, above (p. 9)]. (iv) Metastable ions m* are present with m/e 102-7, 87-3, 77-1, 53-8, 50-8, 33-0, and 29-5.

Such an oxonium ion loses ethylene or a substituted ethylene in a rearrangement involving a four-membered transition state [for the decomposition of the molecular ion (XX) of ethyl isobutyl ether these fragmentations have been depicted (p. 22) as a concerted process]. An Introduction to Mass Spectrometry 41 The scission of a bond from the oxygen, with rearrangement of a hydrogen radical from the /J-carbon atom, can also occur for the molecular ion and either fragment (an alcohol or an olefin) may carry the positive charge.

M—18) is insignificant unless there is a suitable side-chain in the ortho- position, as with otoluic acid [molecular ion (XXXV)] (p. (31) An Introduction to Mass Spectrometry 45 CARBOXYLIC ESTERS (i) Aliphatic^36b) The molecular ion peak is discernible. C— O and C = O . O R ' . McLafferty rearrangement of methyl esters gives a prominent peak (at mje 74 when the a-carbon atom is unbranched), as does similar rearrangement of ethyl esters {mje 88). A rearrangement involving the transfer of two hydrogen radicals is quite common for esters, typically ethyl esters, and gives diagnostically useful peaks in the series mje 61, 75.

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