By Fasold R., Connor-Linton J.
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3 IPA symbols for the vowels of English i bead key he I bid kit e bade kate ε bed ketchup æ bad cat u booed coot U book cook o bode coat hoe ø baud caught haw a body cot ha √ bud aU bowed count how øI boy coy ahoy aI bide kite high ´ about hey who cut rosa’s [roz´z] roses [rozˆz] ˆ The terms we use to classify different vowels refer to the highest point of the tongue during the vowel. The tongue body moves up for the high vowels [i, I, ˆ, u, U], down for the low vowels [Q, a], and stays in the middle for the mid vowels [e, E, o, ç, √, ´].
All languages use intonation to some extent, though the patterns and meanings differ across languages. In addition to intonation, most languages also use pitch to distinguish different words. In English, whether you say [khQt] with a rising pitch or falling pitch, the word still refers to a feline. ) These words are as different as cat and cut to an English speaker. This use of pitch, to distinguish different words, is known as tone. 29 You probably learned in elementary school about long and short vowels in English spelling (like “long a” as in made and “short a” as in mad), but this is more a distinction of vowel quality ([e] vs.
The velum is a muscular structure that regulates the velar port, the opening in the back of the mouth that connects the mouth and nose. When the velum is lowered, as it is for breathing and for some sounds such as [m] and [n], the port is open and air flows freely between the nose and lungs. (It’s a phonetic convention to write the symbols for sounds within square brackets. ) When the velum is raised, as it is for most speech sounds, the opening to the nose is closed off and all the airstream is directed through the mouth.