Advances in Catalysis, Vol. 1 by W.G. Frankenburg, V.I. Komarewsky, E.K. Rideal (Eds.)

By W.G. Frankenburg, V.I. Komarewsky, E.K. Rideal (Eds.)

(from preface)The use of heterogeneous catalysts as a device within the laboratory, in preparative chemistry, and in huge scale commercial construction has elevated past any expectancies over the past 3 decades.Catalytic techniques at the present time dominate the creation of sulfuric acid, ammonia, methanol, and lots of different commercial items. The cracking of mineral oils, the hydrogenation, transformation, and synthesis of hydrocarbons are just about all situated round catalytic conversions conducted with many alternative catalysts together with a few of hugely particular motion. Many extra catalyzed reactions are being conducted in batch tactics and in non-stop operations, in heterogeneous and in homogeneous systems...

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Iron Synthetic Ammonia Catalysts Brunauer and Emmett (10) in their careful studies of iron catalysts had already observed (see especially Tables IV, JJ and XI11 of the paper cited) the phenomenon of increasing adsorption with decreasing temperature that we have indicated as occurring in our studies, as recorded in Fig. 8, on other preparations of synthetic ammonia catalysts. 3. Tungsten I n the studies of hydrogen and nitrogen adsorption on tungsten powders Frankenburger and his associates (16) established the fact that the adsorption of nitrogen on tungsten increased with increasing temperature, that the establishment of equilibrium was a slow process and that, on cooling the system, the amounts taken up on increasing the temperature are not given off again.

N. IPATIEFF AND LOUIS SCHMERLING Intensive research on catalytic alkylation of paraffins resulted in a number of commercial processes for the production of high octane number motor fuel from refinery gases. The reaction played a major role in World War 11, for it provided the means of producing “alkylate,” an important component of 100-octane aviation gasoline. For this purpose it had advantages over the alternative process involving olefin polymerization followed by hydrogenation because it yielded an isoparaffinic gasoline directly and because it permitted the utilization of butanes as well us of olefins, thus yielding approximately twice as much g a d i n e from a given amount of olefin.

Trans. 28,229 (1932). 17. Kohbchutter, 11. , Z. physik. Chem. 170A, 300 (1934). 18. Beebe, R. , and Dowden, D. , J . Am. Chem. 60,2912 (1938). 19. Garner, W. , and Kingman, F. E. , Nature 126,352 (1930). 20. a. Eley, D. , and Rideal, E. , Nutwe 146,401 (1940). b. Eley, D. , Proc. Roy. LondonA178,452 (1941). 21. , J . Am. Chem. 64,1594 (1942). Alkylation of Isoparaffins V. N. erside, Illinois CONTENTS I. Introduction . . . . . 1. Historical . . . , . . 2. Scope . . . . , . 3. Preliminary Survey .

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