Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology. Hammanr

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Good progress has been made in cloning and characterising OSCs and in the elucidation of amino acids that are important for enzyme activity and product specificity; OSCs with altered properties have been generated by construction of chimeric enzymes [15], by targeted mutation of critical amino acid residues [27, 46, 57–64, 71] and also by the selection of spontaneous mutants in yeast [67]. Further advances in this area will give a comprehensive insight into the mechanistic enzymology and evolution of this fascinating superfamily of enzymes, and will enable the development of new enzymes that generate novel products by “accelerated evolution”.

Baker’s Yeast Production . . . . . . . . . . 3 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 56 58 59 59 60 62 65 66 67 69 70 74 75 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Advances in Biochemical Engineering/ Biotechnology, Vol. 75 Managing Editor: Th. Scheper © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002 52 E. Nagy List of Symbols and Abbreviations specific interfacial area, m2 m–3 size of cubic particles, m size of spherical droplets, m diffusion coefficient, m2 s–1 = D/Dd dilution rate (= FL/V), h–1 enhancement factor due to presence of droplets defined by Eq.

47 List of Abbreviations aAS bAS CS DS EST LS LuP OSC PCR SC a-Amyrin synthase b-Amyrin synthase Cycloartenol synthase Dammarenediol synthase Expressed sequence tag Lanosterol synthase Lupeol synthase Oxidosqualene cyclase Polymerase chain reaction Squalene-hopene cyclase 1 Introduction Collectively plants synthesise a diverse array of secondary metabolites, either as part of normal growth and development or in response to pathogen attack or stress. By definition, secondary metabolites are regarded as “luxury items” that are not required for growth and reproduction of the plant, at least under defined conditions.

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