By Marcel Erdal
Previous Turkic is the earliest, at once attested Turkic language. This unique paintings describes the grammar of outdated Turkic. The language is documented in inscriptions within the 'runic' script in Mongolia and the Yenisey basin, from the 7th to the 10th century; in Uygur manuscripts from chinese language Turkestan in Uygur, and in runic and different scripts (comprising spiritual – typically Buddhist –, felony, literary, scientific, folkloric, astrological and private material), from the 9th to the 13th century; and in eleventh-century Qarakhanid texts, in general in Arabic writing. All facets of previous Turkic are handled: phonology, subphonemic phenomena and morphophonology, and how those are mirrored within the a variety of scripts, derivational and inflectional morphology, grammatical different types, notice periods, syntax, textual and extra-textual reference and different technique of coherence, lexical fields, discourse forms, phrasing in addition to stylistic, dialect and diachronic edition.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Old Turkic
Käräk is also what we find in Qarakhanid sources and also as a loan word in Mongolian, already in the (13th century) Secret History. Rather than pointing at a different dialect, such traits show that texts in Indic scripts stayed outside the written norm and reflected characteristics of the spoken language; the g of kärgäk probably dropped away from the dialect(s) underlying Uygur already in the 10th century. As for the syntactic characteristics of BrƗhmƯ sources, these appear to emanate from the fact that some of them follow the syntactic structure or just the word order of their source text, and sometimes even its morphological structures34 rather slavishly.
In Zieme 1969. Another question concerns the nature of vowels in non-first syllables: Are there the same number of phonemes as in first syllables or are there a smaller number of ‘archphonemes’? Does o/ö appear in non-first syllables outside BrƗhmƯ texts? Are o and ö in non-first syllables allophones of other (high or low) vowels 28 CHAPTER ONE appearing only after o or ö or are they phonemes? Cf. for this topic Clauson 1962, K. Thomsen 1963, Clauson 1966 and Erdal 1996. ; in a sense this is preparatory work for the EDPT.
Abduraxmanov 1967 and Nigmatov 1975a are general descriptions of Qarakhanid syntax; there is nothing similar for Old Turkic proper. The first papers I could discover on specific syntactic topics are ù. Tekin 1965 on oblique clauses and Poppe 1966 on nominal phrases and nominal compounds; this latter is the topic also of Adams 1981 and Röhrborn 1987. Both Adams and Kayra 1994, who deals with adjectives and adjective phrases, limit their paper to the Orkhon inscriptions; by far the greatest volume of linguistic and philological research has been carried out on this group of texts, although it constitutes only a minute fraction of Old Turkic sources.