By Christopher Lord
A Democratic Audit of the eu Union offers a scientific evaluate of democracy within the ecu opposed to sincerely outlined standards. Christopher Lord bargains a double problem to generalizations a couple of democratic deficit within the european. at the one hand, it indicates that criteria of democratic functionality within the european might range throughout Union associations and decision-making strategies. however, it exhibits that they could range throughout key dimensions of democratic governance, together with citizenship, rights, participation, illustration, responsiveness, transparency and responsibility.
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Additional info for A Democratic Audit of the European Union (One Europe or Several?)
Application and interpretation of Union law Legislation. Can amend or reject much pillar 1 legislation Financial. ) ● Approval needed for discharge of Commission’s accounts. 4 Policy instruments of the EU Primary acts (The Treaties) Secondary Acts Regulations. Measures binding in their entirety throughout the Union; Directives. Results that national authorities must achieve in a ‘form and method’ of their own choosing; Decisions. Measures that only bind the specific actors to whom they are addressed; Recommendations and Opinions without binding force First pillar legislative procedures Most first pillar legislation can only be initiated by the Commission and be decided with the agreement of the Council.
11. How far are those who hold office or make decisions in EU institutions accountable to elected representatives of citizens at Union level? 5. How far are those who hold office or make decisions in Union institutions accountable to representatives of national democracies who are, in turn, responsible to their national publics and parliaments? 6. How far does the EU constitutionalise modified consociationalism or use its methods to constitutionalise other values? 12. How far does the EU constitutionalise concurrent consent or use its methods to constitutionalise other values?
Perhaps the most familiar of all distinctions used in the classification of forms of democracy, direct democracy is where the people themselves take major decisions of government. The alternative is that the people exercise control indirectly through elected representatives. Indirect or representative democracies may be further sub-divided into presidential and parliamentary forms. Under presidential systems, a chief executive and a legislature are elected separately. Under parliamentary systems the two are effectively elected together, since a majority of the legislature can make or break governments.